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Sura al-Nas

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Sura al-Nas
al-Falaq
سوره ناس.jpg
Sura Number 114
Juz' 30
Revelation
Revelation Number 21
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 6
Word Count 20
Letter Count 78
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Nas; to read its text see text:Sura al-Nas.

Sūra al-Nās (Arabic سورة الناس) is 114th and the last sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' thirty. In this sura, God ordered the Prophet (s) to seek protection of God against the sneaky tempters.

In some Sunni commentaries, it is mentioned that this sura was revealed when a Jewish man practiced magic on the Prophet (s) and the Prophet (s) became ill. Then Jibra'il (Gabriel) went to the Prophet (s) and brought Sura al-Falaq (Qur'an 113) and Sura al-Nas to him and some of their verses were recited to the Prophet (s), he (s) was healed. Some Shi'a scholars rejected this report and said that magic does not influence on the Prophet (s).

Sura al-Nas and Sura al-Falaq are called al-Mu'awwidhatayn because they are recited for seeking protection of God. About the merits of the recitation of Sura al-Nas, it is narrated that whoever recites the two suras of al-Nas and al-Falaq (Qur'an 113) is like someone who has recited all the books of divine prophets (s). Also, it is narrated that the Prophet (s) considered these two suras the most beloved suras before God.

Introduction

  • Naming

This sura is called al-Nas. It is adopted from the first verse of the sura and means people. Sura al-Nas is also called Mu'awwadha because by recitation of which, human being can take refuge in God against temptations of Satan. Also, because human being recites it at the times of danger to be saved, it is called Mushaqshaqa. The two suras of al-Nas and al-Falaq are called Mushaqshaqatayn and al-Mu'awwidhatayn.[1]

  • Order and Place of Revelation

Sura al-Nas is among Makki suras and the twenty first sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of the Qur'an, this sura is 114th sura[2] located in juz' thirty.

  • Number of Verses and Other Characteristics

Sura al-Nas has six verses, twenty words, and seventy eight letters. Regarding volume, it is among Mufassalat (having several short verses).[3]

Content

In Sura al-Nas, God orders the Prophet (s) to seek protection of God from the evil of the sneaky tempters (Arabic: الخناس, al-kahnnas).[4] The content of this sura is similar to that of Qur'an 113. Both of them speak about seeking refuge in God from the evils, with this difference that that in Sura al-Falaq, different kinds of evils are mentioned, but in Sura al-Nas, only the evil of sneaky tempters is mentioned.[5]

Content of Sura al-Nas[6]
 
 
Seeking refuge in God from the evil of temptations
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First point: verses 1-3
Reasons for seeking refuge in God
 
Second point: verses 4-6
Characteristics of tempters
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First Reason: verse 1
God is the Lord of humans
 
First Characteristic: verse 4
Tempters are always lie in ambush
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second Reason: verse 2
God is the Master of humans
 
Second Characteristic: verse 5
Tempters tempt the heart of men
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third Reason: verse 3
God is worshipped by humans
 
Third Characteristic: verse 6
Tempters are from the two groups of men and jinns

Occasion of Revelation

About the occasion of revelation of this sura, there is a report in Sunni sources that Shi'a scholars did not accept.[7] In al-Durr al-manthur, it quotes from Sunni commentaries that a Jewish man practiced magic on the Prophet (s). Jibra'il (Gabriel) went to the Prophet (s) and brought al-Mu'awwidhatayn to him and told him that a Jewish man practiced magic on you and his spell is in such well. The Prophet (s) sent Imam Ali (a) to bring that spell. He (s) then ordered him to untie those knots and for each knot, he (s) recited one of the verses of al-Mu'awwidhatayn. When the knots were all untied and the two suras were finished, the Prophet (s) regained his health.[8]

In Tafsir al-mizan, 'Allama Tabataba'i wrote that there is no reason for the Prophet (s) to be physically resistant to magic and would not become ill by magic; however, verses of the Qur'an suggest that the heart and mind of the Prophet (s) are safe from the magic and influence of satanic powers.[9]

Merits and Benefits

It is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites the two suras of al-Nas and Sura al-Falaq (Qur'an 113) is like someone who has recited all the books of divine prophets (s).[10] It is narrated from Imam al-Baqir (a) that whoever recites the suras of al-Mu'awwidhatayn and Sura al-Ikhlas (Qur'an 112) in his watr prayer, he will be told that, "O servant of God! The good news is for you that God accepted your watr prayer".[11] It is reported that the Prophet (s) mentioned the two suras of al-Falaq and al-Nas the most beloved suras before God.[12]

About the benefits of Sura al-Nas, it is reported that the Prophet (s) recited the two suras of al-Falaq and al-Nas to secure Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) from any evil things.[13] There is another report from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites the suras Qur'an 112 (al-Ikhlas}, al-Nas, and Qur'an 113 (al-Falaq) ten times every night, it is as if he has recited the whole Qur'an and will be free of his sins like the day he was born of his mother and if he dies on that day or night, he has died as martyr.[14]

Notes

  1. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1271-1272.
  2. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 166.
  3. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1271-1272.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 395.
  5. Makārim Shīrāzī, Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 5, p. 538-632.
  6. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  7. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 394.
  8. Suyūṭī, al-Durr al-manthūr, vol. 6, p. 417.
  9. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 20, p. 394.
  10. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 491.
  11. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 491.
  12. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 92, p. 368.
  13. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1271-1272.
  14. Kafʿamī, al-Balad al-amīn, p. 33.

See also

References

  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1403 AH.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna. Edited by Aḥmad ʿAlī Bābāyī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1382 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
  • Suyūṭī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-. Al-Durr al-manthūr fī tafsīr al-maʾthūr. Qom: Kitābkhāna-yi Āyatollāh Marʿashī al-Najafī, 1404 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Second edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1974.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-'Ilmīyya, [n.d].