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Sura al-Munafiqun

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This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Munafiqun; to read its text see text:Sura al-Munafiqun.
Sura al-Munafiqun
al-Jumu'a← →al-Taghabun
سوره منافقون.jpg
Sura Number 63
Juz' 28
Revelation
Revelation Number 105
Makki/Madani Madani
Information
Verse Count 11
Word Count 180
Letter Count 800

Sūra al-Munafiqūn (The Hypocrites) is the 63rd sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in the juz' 28. Sura al-Munafiqun is about hypocrites and speaks about their actions and characteristics. This sura orders the Prophet (s) to be cautious about the danger of hypocrites and advises believers to give in the way of God and keep away from hypocrisy. In Tafsir al-Qummi, it is mentioned that the verse 8 [Note 1] of this sura was revealed about 'Abd Allah b. Ubayy who wanted to expel the Immigrants from Medina. About the merits of recitation of this sura, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Munafiqun, will be cleansed from any hypocrisy.

Naming

This sura is called al-Munafiqun because its main topic is the hypocrites.[1]

Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Munafiqun is a Madani and the 105th sura revealed to the Prophet (s). It is now the 63rd sura of the Qur'an[2] located in the juz' 28.

Number of Verses and Other Features

Sura al-Munafiqun has 11 verses, 180 words and 800 letters. It is among Mufassalat suras (having several short verses) and is relatively short.[3]

Content

Sura al-Munafiqun describes hypocrites and shows their bitter enmity towards Muslims. In this sura, the Prophet (s) is ordered to be cautious about the danger of hypocrites. It also advises believers to spend in the way of God (infaq) and keep away from hypocrisy.[4]

Content of Sura al-Munafiqun[5]
 
 
 
 
Disclosing the nature of hypocrites
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First speech: verses 1-6
Religious nature of hypocrites
 
Second speech: verses 7-8
Plots of hypocrites
 
Third speech: verses 9-11
Means of saving faith from hypocrisy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First issue: verses 1-3
False claim of believing in God and the Prophet (s)
 
First issue: verse 7
Trying to impose economic sanction on believers
 
First measure: verse 9
Not to become negligent about God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second issue: verse 4
Pretension
 
Second issue: verse 8
Trying to subvert the Islamic system
 
Second measure: verses 10-11
Giving in the way of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third issue: verses 5-6
Arrogant encounter of hypocrites with the Prophet (s)

Occasion of Revelation

About the occasion of revelation of sura al-Munafiqun, it is mentioned in Tafsir al-Qummi that in one of the battles of the Prophet (s), two of his companions disputed over pulling water from a well and one of the Helpers was injured. 'Abd Allah b. Ubayy became very angry of hearing that and threatened that when they return to Medina, he would expel abased people from that city.[6] These words of 'Abd Allah which meant his wish to expel the Immigrants from Medina is mentioned in the verse 8 of sura al-Munafiqun, "they say, 'When we return to the city, the mighty will surely expel the abased from it.'"[7]

Zayd b. Arqam who witnessed this event, quoted the words of 'Abd Allah for the Prophet (s), but 'Abd Allah went to the Prophet (s) and gave testimony about the Oneness of God and the mission of His Prophet (s) and rejected the words of Zayd. Shortly afterwards, the verses one to eight of Sura al-Munafiqun were revealed.[8]

Merits and Benefits

In Majma' al-bayan fi tafsir al-Qur'an, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Munafiqun, will be cleansed of any hypocrisy.[9] Based on another hadith mentioned in Thawab al-a'mal, Imam al-Sadiq (a) advised Shi'a to recite the Qur'an 62 and al-Munafiqun in the Zuhr prayer on Friday. It is mentioned in this hadith that, whoever does so, is like having done the Prophet's (s) action and his reward is entering the paradise.[10] According to the view of some jurists, reciting Sura al-Munafiqun is recommended in the second rak'a of Friday prayer.[11]

Notes

  1. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 24, p. 143.
  2. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 168.
  3. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1256.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 278.
  5. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  6. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 368.
  7. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 369.
  8. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 369-370.
  9. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 437.
  10. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 118.
  11. Khomeini, Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil, vol. 1, p. 848.
  1. They say, ‘When we return to the city, the mighty will surely expel the weak from it.’ Yet all might belongs to Allah and His Apostle and the faithful, but the hypocrites do not know.

References

  • Khomeini, Rūḥollah. Tawḍīḥ al-masāʾil. Edited by Sayyid Muḥammad Ḥusayn Banī Hāshimī. Eighth edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1424 AH.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān - Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. Translated to Farsi by Wakīlī. Tehran: Sazmān-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, 1367 Sh.
  • Qummī, ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm al-. Tafsīr al-Qummī. Edited by Mūsawī Jazāʾirī. Fourth edition. Qom: Dār al-Kitāb, 1367 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Qom: Dār Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1406 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1417 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān. Tehran: Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.