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Sura al-Nur

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Sura al-Nur
al-Mu'minun ← →al-Furqan
سوره نور.jpg
Sura Number 24
Juz' 18
Revelation
Revelation Number 103
Makki/Madani Madani
Information
Verse Count 64
Word Count 1381
Letter Count 5755
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Nur; to read its text see text:Sura al-Nur.

Sūra al-Nūr (سورة النور) is the twenty forth sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in juz' eighteen. This sura is called "al-Nur" because the word "nur" is mentioned in this sura seven times and it contains al-Nur verse. Sura al-Nur also contains many rulings such as the punishment for adultery, attributing adultery to someone (Qadhf) and hijab as an obligation for women.

Also, in this sura, the Event of Ifk, some issues about marriage, slander, libel and accusation are mentioned and spreading atrocities are prohibited. About the blessings of recitation of this sura, there are narrations suggesting that whoever recites Sura al-Nur, God will give him rewards ten times more than the number of all men and women believers in the past and in the future. It is also mentioned in narrations that it is among the rights of a daughter upon her father to teach her Sura al-Nur.

Introduction

  • Naming

This sura is named al-Nur because the word "nur" is mentioned in this sura seven times and it also contains al-Nur verse (verse 35). This verse begins with the word "Allah" and the word "Nur" is mentioned in it five times.[1]

  • Order and Place of Revelation

Sura al-Nur is a Madani sura. It is 103rd sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of revelation, it is twenty forth sura of the Qur'an[2] located in juz' 18.

  • Number of Verses

Sura al-Nur has sixty four verses, 1381 words and 5755 letters. Regarding volume, this sura is among Mathani suras, middle size and about half of one juz'.

Content

Content of Sura al-Nur[3]
 
 
 
 
 
 
Principles of preaching modesty with the observation of divine rulings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First topic: verses 1-33
Principles of preaching modesty in the society
 
Second topic: verses 34-57
The influence of observing religious rulings in receiving divine guidance
 
Third topic: verses 58-61
Principles of preaching modesty and love in the family
 
Fourth topic: verses 62-64
The importance of following the order of God and the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Introduction: verse 1
Necessity of acting upon the rulings in this sura
 
First point: verses 34-35
Explaining the rulings for the guidance of believers toward light
 
First principle: verses 58-59
Observing parents' privacy
 
First point: verse 62
Necessity of following the order of the Prophet (s) in general issues of the society
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First principle: verses 2-3
Public punishment of adulterers
 
Second point: verses 36-38
Remembering God results in receiving divine guidance
 
Second principle: verse 60
Observing appropriate hijab for women
 
Second point: verses 22-24
Always follow the order of the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second principle: verses 4-10
Punishment of those who accuse chaste women
 
Third point: verses 39-40
Two examples for deprivation of disbelievers from the light of diving teachings
 
Third principle: verse 61
Observing the manners of entering other people's houses
 
Third point: verse 64
Adjustment of religious rulings to human's needs
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third principle: verses 11-26
Not spreading immoral rumors
 
Forth point: verses 41-42
Creatures' general praise of God, a sign of general mercy of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Forth principle: verses 27-29
Observing people's privacy
 
Fifth point: verse 43
Pouring rain of mercy upon a group of servants, a sign of God's special mercy
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fifth principle: verses 30-31
Observing decency and modesty when facing non-mahram people
 
Sixth point: verses 44-46
Guidance of everyone is based on his competence
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sixth principle: verses 32-33
Preaching the culture of marriage
 
Seventh point: verses 47-57
The methods of hypocrites and believers in observing the rule of God

Famous Verses

Al-Ifk Verses

Main articles: Al-Ifk Verses and Event of Ifk

After verse eleven of Sura al-Nur, the glorious Qur'an mentions the story of slandering a Muslim and criticizes people for it. From the appearance of the verses of the Qur'an, aside from the commentaries and occasions of revelation proposed for them, it can be understood that the person who was subject to slander was a famous person and a member of the Prophet's (s) family and the slanderers were a group of people.[4] Two contexts of revelation have been suggested for these verses:

Al-Nur Verse

Main article: Al-Nur Verse

In some commentaries, with regards to available narrations, this verse is interpreted as referring to the Ahl al-Bayt (a). It is narrated from Imam al-Rida (a) that we are the niche wherein is the lamp of Muhammad (s) and God guides whomever He wishes through our wilaya.[10]

It is also mentioned in al-Mizan that Imam al-Sadiq (a) was asked about al-Nur verse and Imam (a) answered, "it is a parable God has made about us the Ahl al-Bayt (a), that the Prophet (s) and Imams (a) are among the signs of God, by which people are guided toward the Unity of God, the good of religion, recommended actions and obligations."[11] To explain this understanding, 'Allama Tabataba'i suggested that this narration referred to some examples, but the verse apparently includes people other than the Ahl al-Bayt (a), such as the prophets (a) and the friends of God as well.[12]

Verses of Rulings

Verses two to eight of Sura al-Nur are mentioned among the verses of ruling.[13]

  • Verse two refers to adulterers and mentions the punishment for such persons, a hundred stroke of lashes. Scholars of jurisprudence have discussed under this verse about whom is meant by adulterer in this verse and what are the conditions of administering the punishment.
  • Verse three considers marriage of a believer with an adulterer prohibited. It is mentioned in commentaries that the adulterer in this ruling refers to a person who is famous for doing this action, not a person who has repented.[14]
  • Verses four to eight speak about the slander of adultery and mentions the rulings for Qadhf and Li'an.[15]
  • Another verses of ruling in this sura is verse thirty one which is about hijab.[16] It orders women to modesty and covering their jewelry and mentions whom women can meet without hijab.
  • Verse sixty excludes old women from this ruling with some conditions.[17]
  • Also verses thirty two and thirty three are counted among verses which infer rulings.[18] These verses order men and women about marriage and mention that if they do not have the requirements for it, they need to observe modesty and chasteness.

Merits and Benefits

About the merits of Sura al-Nur, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Nur, God will give him rewards ten times more than the number of all men and women believers in the past and in the future.[19]

It is also narrated from the Prophet (s) that it is among the rights of a daughter upon her father to teach her Sura al-Nur.[20] It is also narrated from Imam Ali (a) that he (a) ordered, "teach Sura al-Nur to your women in which there is good advice."[21] It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a), "guard your property and sexual desire by recitation Sura al-Nur and protect your women with this sura, because whoever recites this sura every day or every night, none of his households would commit adultery; and after his death, seventy thousand angels will follow his body in funeral, pray for him and ask for his forgiveness until he is buried in the grave."[22]

Several blessings and benefits are narrated about recitation of this sura such as preventing nocturnal emission,[23] return of an escaped person (if the verse forty of this sura is recited) and healing the weakness of eye, for which one needs to write the verse thirty five of this sura, wash it and rub its water on his eyes.[24]

Notes

  1. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1243.
  2. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 168.
  3. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 127-128.
  5. To critique this opinion, See: Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 101-130;Makārim Shīrāzī, al-Amthāl, vol. 11, p. 40-41.
  6. See: Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 297-302; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, p. 426-435; Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, vol. 5, p. 223-227.
  7. To critique this opinion, See: Makārim Shīrāzī, al-Amthal, vol. 11, p. 41; Subḥānī, Furūgh-i abadīyyat, p. 666.
  8. Qummī, Tafsīr al-Qummī, vol. 2, p. 99; ʿĀmilī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ min sīrat al-nabīyy, vol. 12, p. 320, 326.
  9. Makārim Shīrāzī, al-Amthal, vol. 11, p. 46.
  10. Shubbar, Tafsīr Shubbar, p. 342.
  11. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 195.
  12. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 15, p. 195.
  13. Īrawānī, Durūs tamhīdīyya, vol. 1, p. 356, 567, 577; Fāḍil Miqdād, Kanz al-ʿirfān, vol. 2, p. 294.
  14. Fayḍ al-Kāshānī, Tafsīr al-Ṣāfī, vol. 3, p. 417.
  15. Ardibīlī, Zubdat al-bayān, p. 613.
  16. Īrawānī, Durūs tamhīdīyya, vol. 1, p. 377-384.
  17. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 14, p. 542; Īrawānī, Durūs tamhīdīyya, vol. 1, p. 386.
  18. Ardibīlī, Zubdat al-bayān, p. 504, 367.
  19. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 7, p. 216.
  20. Ṭūsī, Tahdhīb al-aḥkām, vol. 8, p. 112.
  21. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 5, p. 516.
  22. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 109.
  23. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 4, p. 43.
  24. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 2, p. 63.

References

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  • Ardibīlī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Zubdat al-bayān fī aḥkām al-Qurʾān. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-Murtaḍawīyya, [n.d].
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