|al-Mu'minun ← →al-Furqan|
Sura al-Nur (سورة النور) is 24th sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in juz' 18. This sura is called "al-Nur" because the word "nur" is mentioned in this sura 7 times and it contains al-Nur verse. Sura al-Nur also contains many rulings such as the punishment for adultery, attributing adultery to someone (Qadhf) and hijab as an obligation for women. Also, in this sura, the Event of Ifk, some issues about marriage, slander, libel and accusation are mentioned and spreading atrocities are prohibited. About the blessings of recitation of this sura, there are narrations suggesting that whoever recites sura al-Nur, God will give him rewards ten times more than the number of all men and women believers in the past and in the future. It is also mentioned in narrations that it is among the rights of a daughter upon her father to teach her sura al-Nur.
This sura is named al-Nur because the word "nur" is mentioned in this sura 7 times and it also contains al-Nur verse (verse 35). This verse begins with the word "Allah" and the word "Nur" is mentioned in it five times.
Order and Place of Revelation
Sura al-Nur is a Madani sura. It is 103rd sura revealed to the Prophet (s). It is 24th sura of the Qur'an now located in juz' 18.
Number of Verses
Sura al-Nur has 64 verses, 1381 words and 5755 letters. Regarding volume, this sura is among Mathani suras, middle size and about half of one juz'.
After verse 11 of sura al-Nur, the glorious Qur'an mentions the story of slandering a Muslim and criticizes people for it. From the appearance of the verses of the Qur'an, aside from the commentaries and contexts of revelation proposed for them, it can be understood that the person who was subject to slander was a famous person and a member of the Prophet's (s) family and the slanderers were a group of people. Two contexts of revelation have been suggested for these verses:
- Hypocrites slandered 'Ayisha after Muslims returned from the Battle of Bani l-Mustaliq.
- 'Ayisha slandered Mariya al-Qibtiyya. In these verses, slanderers are threatened to receive a great punishment and also believers are prohibited from accepting rumors without reasons and investigation.
- Main article: Al-Nur Verse
In some commentaries, with regards to available narrations, this verse is interpreted as referring to the Ahl al-Bayt (a). It is narrated from Imam al-Rida (a) that we are the niche wherein is the lamp of Muhammad (s) and God guides whomever He wishes through our wilaya. It is also mentioned in al-Mizan that Imam al-Sadiq (a) was asked about al-Nur verse and Imam (a) answered, "it is a parable God has made about us the Ahl al-Bayt (a), that the Prophet (a) and Imams (a) are among the signs of God, by which people are guided toward the Unity of God, the good of religion, recommended actions and obligations." To explain this understanding, 'Allama Tabataba'i suggested that this narration referred to some examples, but the verse apparently includes people other than the Ahl al-Bayt (a), such as the Prophets (a) and the friends of God as well.
Verses of Rulings
Verses 2 to 8 of sura al-Nur are mentioned among the verses of ruling. Verse 2 refers to adulterers and mentions the punishment for such persons, a hundred stroke of lashes. Scholars of fiqh have discussed under this verse about whom is meant by adulterer in this verse and what are the conditions of administering the punishment. Verse 3 considers marriage of a believer with an adulterer prohibited. It is mentioned in commentaries that the adulterer in this ruling refers to a person who is famous for doing this action, not a person who has repented. Verses 4 to 8 speak about the slander of adultery and mentions the rulings for Qadhf and Li'an.
Another verses of ruling in this sura is verse 31 which is about hijab. It orders women to modesty and covering their jewelry and mentions whom women can meet without hijab. Verse 60 excludes old women from this ruling with some conditions.
Also verses 32 and 33 are counted among verses which infer rulings. These verses order men and women about marriage and mention that if they do not have the requirements for it, they need to observe modesty and chasteness.
Merits and Benefits
About the merits of sura al-Nur, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites sura al-Nur, God will give him rewards ten times more than the number of all men and women believers in the past and in the future. It is also narrated from the Prophet (a) that it is among the rights of a daughter upon her father to teach her sura al-Nur. It is also narrated from Imam Ali (a) that he (a) ordered, "teach sura al-Nur to your women in which there is good advice." It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a), "guard your property and sexual desire by recitation sura al-Nur and protect your women with this sura, because whoever recites this sura every day or every night, none of his households would commit adultery; and after his death, seventy thousand angels will follow his body in funeral, pray for him and ask for his forgiveness until he is buried in the grave."
Several blessings and benefits are narrated about recitation of this sura such as preventing nocturnal emission, return of an escaped person (if the verse 40 of this sura is recited) and healing the weakness of eye, for which one needs to write the verse 35 of this sura, wash it and rub its water on his eyes.
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Nur.|
The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره نور in Farsi Wikishia.
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.