Sūra al-Zukhruf (Arabic:سورة الزخرف) is the 43rd sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' 25. "Zukhruf" means "jewelry and ornaments" which is mentioned in the verse 35. This sura speaks about the Qur'an and the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (s), some proofs for the Unity of God and fighting with polytheism and destinies of some previous prophets and their people. According to some exegetical books, the main topic of this sura is warning to human beings.
Two of this sura's famous verses are the 4th and the 74th, the first of which is about Umm al-Kitab (the Mother of the Book) and the Preserved Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuz) and the second verse is about eternal residence of the dwellers of the hell there. Safety from the grave's punishment and entering the paradise are mentioned among the merits of the recitation of this sura in hadiths.
"Zukhruf" means "jewelry and ornaments" and is mentioned in the verse 35 and this sura is named as "al-Zukhruf" because it points to valuelessness of worldly properties and ornaments in the verses 33 to 35.
Place and Order of Revelation
Sura al-Zukhruf is a Makki sura and in the order of revelation, it was the 63rd sura revealed to the Prophet (s). It is the 43rd sura of the Qur'an located in the juz' 25.
Number of Verses and Other Features
This sura has 89 verses, 838 words and 3609 letters and it is among Mathani suras regarding volume. Sura al-Zukhruf is considered among Hawamim suras because it begins with "Ham-Mim" (حم) and is the 4th sura which begins with an oath.
According to Tafsir-i Nimuna, topics mentioned in Sura al-Zukhruf can be summarized in 7 parts:
1. The importance of the Qur'an and the prophethood of the Prophet (s);
3. Fighting with polytheism and rejecting attribution of wrong issues to God and rejecting blind imitations;
4. Mentioning the destinies of previous prophets and their people;
6. Wrong criteria of faithless people which make them mistake;
7. Giving Advice and consult;
In Tafsir al-Mizan, 'Allama Tabataba'i considered the main topic of this sura, warning to human beings and wrote that it is emphasized in this sura that God's precedence has been to send prophets and warn humans, and the rejectors and the mockers among them were perished. In this sura, examples from the people of Prophet Abraham (a), Prophet Moses (a) and Prophet Jesus (a) are mentioned.
|“||وَإِنَّهُ فِي أُمِّ الْكِتَابِ لَدَيْنَا لَعَلِيٌّ حَكِيمٌ" and it is sublime and wise with Us in the Mother Book.||”|
The title "Umm al-Kitab" is used three times in the Qur'an. Exegetes have interpreted this title in this verse as "the essence and basis of the Book". They referred to verses 21 and 22 of the Qur'an 85[Note 1] and considered "Umm al-Kitab" referring to "al-Lawh al-Mahfuz". Preserved tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuz) is a book in which all the phenomena of the world are recorded and is safe from any change.
Eternal Residence in the Hell
|“||إِنَّ الْمُجْرِمِينَ فِي عَذَابِ جَهَنَّمَ خَالِدُونَIndeed the guilty will remain [forever] in the punishment of hell.||”|
"Khulud" (immortality) means becoming immortal and long staying. There are not much disagreements about the eternal life of the dwellers of the paradise among Islamic theologians and most of them accept that. However, about the eternal residence in the hell, Shi'a theologians believe that it is only specific to disbelievers and if a believer commits a greater sin, although he will be punished, he will not be punished forever.
Stories and Historical Reports
- Abraham's (a) rejection of idol-worshiping (verses 26 – 28)
- Moses' (a) invitation to Pharaoh, Pharaoh's arrogance, people's obedience to Pharaoh, their punishment (Verses 46 – 56);
People's challenges with Jesus son of Mary (a), bringing evident reasons by Jesus (a), invitation to monotheism, disagreement of groups (verses 56 – 65)
Merits and Benefits
It is transmitted from Imam al-Baqir (a) that whoever recites Sura al-Zukhruf regularly, God will keep him safe from insects of the earth and the pressure in the grave, until he stands before God and this sura will come and take this person to the paradise by the order of God. Also, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that a person who recites Sura al-Zukhruf, he will be among those whom will be told on the Judgement Day, "O My servants! Today you will have no fear, nor will you grieve. Enter the paradise without any reckoning."
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Zukhruf.|
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- Indeed it is a glorious Quran, (21), in a preserved tablet.(22)
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره زخرف in Farsi WikiShia.