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Sura al-Zukhruf

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This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Zukhruf; to read its text see text:Sura al-Zukhruf.
Sura al-Zukhruf
al-Shura← →al-Dukhan
سوره زخرف.jpg
Sura Number 43
Juz' 25
Revelation
Revelation Number 63
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 89
Word Count 838
Letter Count 4609

Sūra al-Zukhruf (Arabic:سورة الزخرف) is the 43rd sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' 25. "Zukhruf" means "jewelry and ornaments" which is mentioned in the verse 35. This sura speaks about the Qur'an and the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (s), some proofs for the Unity of God and fighting with polytheism and destinies of some previous prophets and their people. According to some exegetical books, the main topic of this sura is warning to human beings.

Two of this sura's famous verses are the 4th and the 74th, the first of which is about Umm al-Kitab (the Mother of the Book) and the Preserved Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuz) and the second verse is about eternal residence of the dwellers of the hell there. Safety from the grave's punishment and entering the paradise are mentioned among the merits of the recitation of this sura in hadiths.

Introduction

Naming

"Zukhruf" means "jewelry and ornaments" and is mentioned in the verse 35 and this sura is named as "al-Zukhruf" because it points to valuelessness of worldly properties and ornaments in the verses 33 to 35.

Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Zukhruf is a Makki sura and in the order of revelation, it was the 63rd sura revealed to the Prophet (s). It is the 43rd sura of the Qur'an located in the juz' 25.

Number of Verses and Other Features

This sura has 89 verses, 838 words and 3609 letters and it is among Mathani suras regarding volume. Sura al-Zukhruf is considered among Hawamim suras because it begins with "Ham-Mim" (حم) and is the 4th sura which begins with an oath.

Content

According to Tafsir-i Nimuna, topics mentioned in Sura al-Zukhruf can be summarized in 7 parts:

1. The importance of the Qur'an and the prophethood of the Prophet (s);

2. Some proofs for the Unity of God in the universe and reminding different blessings of God upon humans;

3. Fighting with polytheism and rejecting attribution of wrong issues to God and rejecting blind imitations;

4. Mentioning the destinies of previous prophets and their people;

5. The resurrection and rewards of believers and warning sinners;

6. Wrong criteria of faithless people which make them mistake;

7. Giving Advice and consult;

In Tafsir al-Mizan, 'Allama Tabataba'i considered the main topic of this sura, warning to human beings and wrote that it is emphasized in this sura that God's precedence has been to send prophets and warn humans, and the rejectors and the mockers among them were perished. In this sura, examples from the people of Prophet Abraham (a), Prophet Moses (a) and Prophet Jesus (a) are mentioned.

Content of Sura al-Zukhruf[1]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The wrongness of actions and beliefs of polytheists and proving their failures
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First talk:
Polytheists’ turning from monotheistic beliefs of the Qur’an
 
Second talk:
Polytheists’ excuses for worshipping angels
 
Third talk:
Wrongness of the manner and beliefs of polytheists
 
Fourth talk:
Destinies of God-worshippers and polytheists
 
Fifth talk:
Proving Tawhid and the failure of polytheists
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First issue
The goal of sending the Qur’an, to make humans think
 
First excuse:
Angels are daughter of God
 
First issue:
Polytheism, the result of following Satan
 
First:
The consequence of polytheism is punishment
 
First:
Futile efforts of polytheists in opposing the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second issue:
Sins and mocking does not make an obstacle for preaching religion
 
Second excuse:
God wants us to worship angels
 
Second:
That polytheists cannot be guided
 
Second:
The reward of the servants of God in the paradise
 
Second:
God does not have any children or partner
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third issue:
The necessity of worshipping blessing-giving God;
 
Third:
Imitating ancestors
 
Third:
Similarity of the manner of polytheists and followers of Pharaoh
 
Third:
The punishment of those who fight the truth in the hell
 
Third:
The Lord of all the worlds is only God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth:
That the inviter to monotheism (the Prophet (a)) is not rich
 
Fourth:
Pugnacity and challenge of polytheists about Jesus Christ (a)
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth:
No being has the right to make intercession without the permission of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fifth:
The duty of the Prophet (s) against the polytheists

Famous Verses

Umm al-Kitab

Verse 4

The title "Umm al-Kitab" is used three times in the Qur'an. Exegetes have interpreted this title in this verse as "the essence and basis of the Book". They referred to verses 21 and 22 of the Qur'an 85[Note 1] and considered "Umm al-Kitab" referring to "al-Lawh al-Mahfuz". Preserved tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuz) is a book in which all the phenomena of the world are recorded and is safe from any change.

Eternal Residence in the Hell

Verse 74

"Khulud" (immortality) means becoming immortal and long staying. There are not much disagreements about the eternal life of the dwellers of the paradise among Islamic theologians and most of them accept that. However, about the eternal residence in the hell, Shi'a theologians believe that it is only specific to disbelievers and if a believer commits a greater sin, although he will be punished, he will not be punished forever.

Stories and Historical Reports

  • Moses' (a) invitation to Pharaoh, Pharaoh's arrogance, people's obedience to Pharaoh, their punishment (Verses 46 – 56);

People's challenges with Jesus son of Mary (a), bringing evident reasons by Jesus (a), invitation to monotheism, disagreement of groups (verses 56 – 65)

Merits and Benefits

It is transmitted from Imam al-Baqir (a) that whoever recites Sura al-Zukhruf regularly, God will keep him safe from insects of the earth and the pressure in the grave, until he stands before God and this sura will come and take this person to the paradise by the order of God. Also, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that a person who recites Sura al-Zukhruf, he will be among those whom will be told on the Judgement Day, "O My servants! Today you will have no fear, nor will you grieve. Enter the paradise without any reckoning."

Notes

  1. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  1. Indeed it is a glorious Quran, (21), in a preserved tablet.(22)

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره زخرف in Farsi WikiShia.