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Sura al-Zukhruf

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This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Zukhruf; to read its text see text:Sura al-Zukhruf.
Sura al-Zukhruf
al-Shura← →al-Dukhan
سوره زخرف.jpg
Sura Number 43
Juz' 25
Revelation
Revelation Number 63
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 89
Word Count 838
Letter Count 4609

Sūra al-Zukhruf (Arabic:سورة الزخرف) is the forty third sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' twenty five. "Zukhruf" means "jewelry and ornaments" which is mentioned in the verse thirty five. This sura speaks about the Qur'an and the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (s), some proofs for the Unity of God and fighting with polytheism and destinies of some previous prophets and their people. According to some exegetical books, the main topic of this sura is warning to human beings.

Two of this sura's famous verses are the forth and the seventy forth, the first of which is about Umm al-Kitab (the Mother of the Book) and the Preserved Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuz) and the second verse is about eternal residence of the dwellers of the hell there. Safety from the grave's punishment and entering the paradise are mentioned among the merits of the recitation of this sura in hadiths.

Introduction

  • Naming

"Zukhruf" means "jewelry and ornaments" and is mentioned in the verse thirty five and this sura is named as "al-Zukhruf" because it points to valuelessness of worldly properties and ornaments in the verses thirty three to thirty five.[1]

  • Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Zukhruf is a Makki sura and in the order of revelation, it was the sixty third sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of compilation, It is the forty third sura of the Qur'an,[2] located in the juz' twenty five.

  • Number of Verses and Other Features

This sura has eighty nine verses, 838 words and 3609 letters and it is among Mathani suras regarding volume.[3] Sura al-Zukhruf is considered among Hawamim suras because it begins with "Ham-Mim" (حم) and is the forth sura which begins with an oath.[4]

Content

According to Tafsir-i Nimuna, topics mentioned in Sura al-Zukhruf can be summarized in seven parts:

  1. The importance of the Qur'an and the prophethood of the Prophet (s);
  2. Some proofs for the Unity of God in the universe and reminding different blessings of God upon humans;
  3. Fighting with polytheism and rejecting attribution of wrong issues to God and rejecting blind imitations;
  4. Mentioning the destinies of previous prophets and their people;
  5. The resurrection and rewards of believers and warning sinners;
  6. Wrong criteria of faithless people which make them mistake;
  7. Giving Advice and consult;[5]

In Tafsir al-Mizan, Allama Tabataba'i considered the main topic of this sura, warning to human beings and wrote that it is emphasized in this sura that God's precedence has been to send prophets and warn humans, and the rejectors and the mockers among them were perished. In this sura, examples from the people of Prophet Abraham (a), Prophet Moses (a) and Prophet Jesus (a) are mentioned.[6]

Content of Sura al-Zukhruf[7]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The wrongness of actions and beliefs of polytheists and proving their failures
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First talk:
Polytheists’ turning from monotheistic beliefs of the Qur’an
 
Second talk:
Polytheists’ excuses for worshipping angels
 
Third talk:
Wrongness of the manner and beliefs of polytheists
 
Fourth talk:
Destinies of God-worshippers and polytheists
 
Fifth talk:
Proving Tawhid and the failure of polytheists
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First issue
The goal of sending the Qur’an, to make humans think
 
First excuse:
Angels are daughter of God
 
First issue:
Polytheism, the result of following Satan
 
First:
The consequence of polytheism is punishment
 
First:
Futile efforts of polytheists in opposing the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second issue:
Sins and mocking does not make an obstacle for preaching religion
 
Second excuse:
God wants us to worship angels
 
Second:
That polytheists cannot be guided
 
Second:
The reward of the servants of God in the paradise
 
Second:
God does not have any children or partner
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third issue:
The necessity of worshipping blessing-giving God;
 
Third:
Imitating ancestors
 
Third:
Similarity of the manner of polytheists and followers of Pharaoh
 
Third:
The punishment of those who fight the truth in the hell
 
Third:
The Lord of all the worlds is only God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth:
That the inviter to monotheism (the Prophet (a)) is not rich
 
Fourth:
Pugnacity and challenge of polytheists about Jesus Christ (a)
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth:
No being has the right to make intercession without the permission of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fifth:
The duty of the Prophet (s) against the polytheists

Famous Verses

Umm al-Kitab

The title "Umm al-Kitab" is used three times in the Qur'an.[8] Exegetes have interpreted this title in this verse as "the essence and basis of the Book". They referred to verses twenty one and twenty two of the Qur'an 85[9] and considered "Umm al-Kitab" referring to "al-Lawh al-Mahfuz".[10] Preserved tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuz) is a book in which all the phenomena of the world are recorded and is safe from any change.[11]

Eternal Residence in the Hell

"Khulud" (immortality) means becoming immortal and long staying.[12] There are not much disagreements about the eternal life of the dwellers of the paradise among Islamic theologians and most of them accept that.[13] However, about the eternal residence in the hell, Shi'a theologians believe that it is only specific to disbelievers and if a believer commits a greater sin, although he will be punished, he will not be punished forever.[14]

Stories and Historical Reports

  • Moses' (a) invitation to Pharaoh, Pharaoh's arrogance, people's obedience to Pharaoh, their punishment (Verses 46 – 56);
  • People's challenges with Jesus son of Mary (a), bringing evident reasons by Jesus (a), invitation to monotheism, disagreement of groups (verses 56 – 65)

Merits and Benefits

It is transmitted from Imam al-Baqir (a) that whoever recites Sura al-Zukhruf regularly, God will keep him safe from insects of the earth and the pressure in the grave, until he stands before God and this sura will come and take this person to the paradise by the order of God.[15] Also, it is transmitted from the Prophet (s) that a person who recites Sura al-Zukhruf, he will be among those whom will be told on the Day of Judgement, "O My servants! Today you will have no fear, nor will you grieve. Enter the paradise without any reckoning."[16]

Notes

  1. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1250.
  2. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2 p. 166.
  3. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1250.
  4. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1250.
  5. Makārim Shīrāzī, Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 4, p. 357.
  6. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 18, p. 83.
  7. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  8. Qurʾān, 3:7; 13:39; 43:4.
  9. Indeed it is a glorious Quran, (21), in a preserved tablet.(22)
  10. Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 9, p. 60; Zamakhsharī, al-Kashshāf, vol. 2, p. 534; Ālūsī, Rūḥ al-maʿānī, vol. 13, p. 245.
  11. Subḥānī, Maʿ al-Sḥīʿa al-imāmīyya, p. 119-120.
  12. Bayhaqī, Tāj al-maṣādir, vol. 1, p. 13.
  13. Mufīd, Risālat fī sharḥ ʿaqāʾid al-Ṣadūq, p. 53-54; Baghdādī, Kitāb uṣūl al-dīn, p. 238-333; Taftāzānī, Sharḥ al-maqāṣid, vol. 5, p. 134.
  14. Mufīd, Risālat fī sharḥ ʿaqāʾid al-Ṣadūq, p. 55; Fāḍil Miqdād, al-Lawāmiʿ al-ilāhīya, p. 441-443.
  15. Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 221.
  16. Baḥrānī, al-Burhān, vol. 4, p. 843.

References

  • Ālūsī, Maḥmūd b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Rūḥ al-maʿānī fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān al-ʿaẓīm. Edited by Muḥammad Ḥusayn ʿArab. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1417 AH.
  • Baghdādī, ʿAbd al-Qāhir b. Ṭāhir al-. Kitāb uṣūl al-dīn. Istanbul: [n.p], 1928.
  • Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim b. Sulaymān. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Bunyād-i Biʿthat, 1389 Sh.
  • Fāḍil Miqdād, Miqdād b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Al-Lawāmiʿ al-ilāhīyya fī l-mabāḥith al-kalāmīyya, Edited by Muḥammad ʿAlī Qāḍī Ṭabāṭabāyī. Qom: [n.p], 1387 Sh.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna. Edited by Aḥmad ʿAlī Bābāyī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1382 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Edited by Muḥammad Riḍā Anṣārī. Qom: Nasīm-i Kawthar, 1382 Sh.
  • Subḥānī, Jaʿfar. Maʿ al-Shīʿa al-imāmīyya fī ʿaqāʾidihim. [n.p]: Muʿāwinat al-Shuʿūn al-Taʿlīm, 1413 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 1406 AH.
  • Taftāzānī, Masʿūd b. ʿUmar al-. Sharḥ al-maqāṣid. Edited by ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ʿUmayra. Cairo: [n.p], 1409 AH.
  • Zamakhsharī, Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Kashshaf. Second edition. Qom: Bilāghat. 1415 AH.