Sura al-Dukhan (Arabic: سورة الدخان) is 44th sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' 25. It is called al-Dukhan because its 10th verse speaks about affliction of disbelievers with a divine punishment (smoke). Sura al-Dukhan mentions that the Qur'an was revealed in the night of al-Qadr and warns disbelievers who doubt the Qur'an. In this sura, the stories of Prophet Moses (a), Israelites and the followers of Pharaoh are mentioned. About the reward for recitation of Sura al-Dukhan, it is narrated from the Prophet (a) that whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan on the eve of Friday, his sins will be forgiven.
It is called al-Dukhan (which means "smoke") because its 10th verse speaks about affliction of disbelievers with a smoke in the sky as divine punishment.
Place and Order of Revelation
Number of Verses and other Features
Sura al-Dukhan has 59 verses, 346 words, and 1475 letters. This sura begins with al-muqatta'a letters of Ha-Mim; thus, it has been considered among hawamim suras. Regarding size, Sura al-Dukhan is among al-mathani suras and less than a hizb.
According to al-Mizan, the primary aim of this sura is warning those who doubt the truth of the Qur'an. Sura al-Dukhan mentions that the Qur'an was revealed by God at the night of al-Qadr for the guidance of humanity; however, disbelievers doubt that because of their vain desires. Then, it warns them that they will be afflicted with punishments in this world and in the hereafter. According to Tafsir nimuna, like other Makki suras, Sura al-Dukhan speaks about beliefs. Unity of God, the hereafter and the Qur'an are its three major topics. In addition, in this sura, the punishments of disbelievers, story of Prophet Moses (a), Israelites, followers of Pharaoh and the philosophy of creation are discussed.
Historical Stories and Reports
The story of Moses (a) and Israelites: the mission of Moses (a), God's order for the Exodus, crossing the sea and drowning of the followers of Pharaoh, survival of Israelites, their superiority over the world, verses 15 – 32.
Merits and Benefits
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Dukhan.|
According to a hadith from the Prophet (a), whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan on the eve of Friday, his sins will be forgiven.
Also, it is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan in his obligatory and recommended prayers, God will resurrect him together with believers, will place him in the shadow of His mercy, will be easy on him in reckoning his deeds and they will give his record of deeds to his right hand. In Mafatih al-jinan, recitation of Sura al-Dukhan is mentioned among recommended practices on the eve of Ramadan 23rd (one of the nights of al-Qadr).
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره دخان in Farsi WikiShia.