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Sura al-Dukhan

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Sura al-Dukhan
al-Zukhruf← →al-Jathiya
سوره دخان.jpg
Sura Number 44
Juz' 25
Revelation Number 64
Makki/Madani Makki
Verse Count 59
Word Count 346
Letter Count 1475
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Dukhan; to read its text see text:Sura al-Dukhan.

Sura al-Dukhan (Arabic: سورة الدخان) is 44th sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura located in juz' 25. It is called al-Dukhan because its 10th verse speaks about affliction of disbelievers with a divine punishment (smoke). Sura al-Dukhan mentions that the Qur'an was revealed in the night of al-Qadr and warns disbelievers who doubt the Qur'an. In this sura, the stories of Prophet Moses (a), Israelites and the followers of Pharaoh are mentioned. About the reward for recitation of Sura al-Dukhan, it is narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan on the eve of Friday, his sins will be forgiven.



It is called al-Dukhan which means "smoke" because its 10th verse speaks about affliction of disbelievers with a smoke in the sky as divine punishment.

Place and Order of Revelation

Sura al-Dukhan is a Makki sura and 64th sura reveled to the Prophet (s). This sura is the 44th sura in the current compilation of the Qur'an and located in juz' 25.

Number of Verses and other Features

Sura al-Dukhan has 59 verses, 346 words, and 1475 letters. This sura begins with al-muqatta'a (disjoined) letters of Ha-Mim; thus, it has been considered among hawamim suras. Regarding size, Sura al-Dukhan is among al-mathani suras and less than a hizb.


According to al-Mizan, the primary aim of this sura is warning those who doubt the truth of the Qur'an. Sura al-Dukhan mentions that the Qur'an was revealed by God at the night of al-Qadr for the guidance of humanity; however, disbelievers doubt that because of their vain desires. Then, it warns them that they will be afflicted with punishments in this world and in the hereafter. According to Tafsir-i nimuna, like other Makki suras, Sura al-Dukhan speaks about beliefs. Unity of God, the hereafter and the Qur'an are its three major topics. In addition, in this sura, the punishments of disbelievers, story of Prophet Moses (a), Israelites, followers of Pharaoh and the philosophy of creation are discussed.

Content of Sura al-Dukhan[1]
Punishment for opposition against the Qur'an and divine signs
First topic: verses 1-8
Characteristics of the Qur'an
Second topic: verses 9-33
Punishment for opposition against divine signs in this world
Third topic: verses 34-57
Punishment for opposition against divine signs in the hereafter
Conclusion: verses 58-59
Those who fight the Qur'an should await divine punishment
First point: verses 1-2
The Qur'an clarifies truths
First point: verses 9-16
Comprehensive punishment of Quraysh
First point: verses 34-42
Truth of the punishment of disbelievers in this world and in the hereafter
Second point: verses 3-5
Revelation of the Qur'an by God was at the night of al-Qadr
Second point: verses 17-33
Destruction of the followers of Pharaoh
Second point: verses 43-50
Punishment of disbelievers and sinners in the hereafter
Third point: verses 6-8
The Qur'an is the mercy of God
Third point: verses 51-57
Reward of the God-wary in the hereafter

Historical Stories and Reports

  • The story of Moses (a) and Israelites: the mission of Moses (a), God's order for the Exodus, crossing the sea and drowning of the followers of Pharaoh, survival of Israelites, their superiority over the world, verses 17 – 32.[Note 1]

Merits and Benefits

According to a hadith from the Prophet (a), whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan on the eve of Friday, his sins will be forgiven.

Also, it is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that whoever recites Sura al-Dukhan in his obligatory and recommended prayers, God will resurrect him together with believers, will place him in the shadow of His mercy, will be easy on him in reckoning his deeds and they will give his record of deeds to his right hand. In Mafatih al-jinan, recitation of Sura al-Dukhan is mentioned among recommended practices on the eve of Ramadan 23rd (one of the nights of al-Qadr).


  1. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  1. Certainly We tried the people of Pharaoh before them, when a noble apostle came to them, (17)[saying,] ‘Give over the servants of Allah to me; indeed I am a trusted apostle [sent] to you.(18) Do not defy Allah. Indeed I bring you a manifest authority.(19) I seek the protection of my Lord and your Lord, lest you should stone me. (20) And if you do not believe me, keep out of my way.’ (21) Then he invoked his Lord, [saying,] ‘These are indeed a guilty lot.’ (22) [Allah told him,] ‘Set out by night with My servants; for you will be pursued. (23) Leave behind the sea unmoving; for they will be a drowned host.’ (24) How many gardens and springs did they leave behind! (25) Fields and splendid places, (26) and the affluence wherein they rejoiced! (27) So it was; and We bequeathed them to another people. (28) So neither the sky wept for them, nor the earth; nor were they granted any respite. (29) Certainly We delivered the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment (30) of Pharaoh. Indeed, he was a tyrant among the transgressors. (31) Certainly We chose them knowingly above all the nations, (32)


  • The material for this article is mainly taken from سوره دخان in Farsi WikiShia.