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Sura al-'Adiyat

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Sura al-'Adiyat
al-Zalzala← →al-Qari'a
سوره عادیات.jpg
Sura Number 100
Juz' 30
Revelation
Revelation Number 14
Makki/Madani ?
Information
Verse Count 11
Word Count 40
Letter Count 169
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-'Adiyat; to read its text see text:Sura al-'Adiyat.

Sura al-ʿAdīyāt (Arabic: سورة العادیات, the chargers) or Wa l-Adiyat (Arabic: سورة والعادیات) is hundredth sura and among short suras of the Qur'an which has eleven verses and begins with oath. The name of the sura is adopted from its first verse and means "chargers". There is a disagreement on whether this sura is Makki or Madani. It is located in juz' thirty of the Qur'an.

Sura al-Adiyat speaks about those who strive, resurrection on the Day of Judgement and ingratitude of human being. About the merits of recitation, it has been mentioned that whoever recites the Sura al-Adiyat and makes a habit of reciting it, God will resurrect him to accompany Imam Ali (a) on the Day of Judgement and he will be among the companions and friends of Imam Ali (a).

Introduction

  • Naming

This sura is called al-Adiyat (chargers); because in its first verse, God has sworn upon them and has spoken about them. This sura is also called "Wa l-Adiyat", because the sura begins with it.[1] Al-Adiyat is the plural form of the word "'adiya" from the root of "'adw" originally meaning "passing and separating". Here, it means "charging and quick running".[2]

  • Order and Place of Revelation

There is a disagreement on whether this sura is Makki or Madani. Tafsir-i nimuna has regarded it Madani[3] and Muhammad Hadi Ma'rifat has considered it Makki.[4] According to Ayatullah Ma'rifat, this is the fourteenth sura revealed to the Prophet (s), i.e. after the Qur'an 103 and before Qur'an 108.[5] In the current order of compilation, this is hundredth sura, located in juz' thirty.

  • Number of Verses and Words

Sura al-Adiyat has eleven verses, forty words, and 169 letters and regarding size, it is among mufassalat suras which are short suras of the Qur'an. Sura al-Adiyat is among suras which begin with oaths.[6]

Content

This sura begins with describing those who strive on the way of God. It then illustrates the battle field and mentions human's ingratitude against his Lord and his stinginess due to his excessive desire for property and affiliation to the world. It also reminds about the events on the Day of Judgement.[7]

Content of Sura al-'Adiyat[8]
 
 
Ways of the treatment of human's indolence in servitude of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First solution: verses 1-8
Observation of the strivers on the way of God and their efforts
 
Second solution: verses 9-11
Mentioning the revelation of inner reality of human being in the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First point: verses 1-5
Swearing to the strivers on the way of God
 
First point: verses 9-10
Disclosing the inner reality of human being in the hereafter
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second point: verses 6-8
Intentional delay on the way of servitude of God
 
Second point: verse 11
God's knowledge about human's heart

Occasion of Revelation

It is narrated that this sura was revealed after the battle of Dhat al-Salasil. In 8/629-30, the Prophet (s) was informed that twelve thousand mounted soldiers were gathered in the land of "Yabis" and made a covenant not to give up efforts until they kill the Prophet (s) and Imam Ali (a) and disunite the Muslim community. The Prophet (s) sent many of his companions to them, but they returned with no result after some discussions. Finally, the Prophet (s) sent Ali (a) with a great group of the Immigrants (Muhajirin) and the Helpers (Ansar) to fight them.

The army of Muslims quickly moved toward the enemy. They walked the night and in the morning besieged the enemy. They first offered Islam to them, but they did not accept it, so they attacked them, defeated them and took some of them as captives and took great amount of booties.

Before Imam Ali (a) and soldiers return to Medina, the Sura al-Adiyat was revealed to the Prophet (s). The Prophet (s) recited this sura in the morning prayer that day. After the prayer, companions said, "we had not heard this sura before!" The Prophet (s) said, "Yes, Ali (a) won the enemies and Jibra'il (Gabriel) brought this sura to me last night as the good news." Some days later, Ali (a) entered Medina with great booties and captives.[9]

Merits and Benefits

About the merits of its recitation, it was narrated from the Prophet (s) that whoever recites it, will be rewarded ten rewards for each one of the hajj pilgrims who stay (the night of Eid al-Adha) in Muzdalifa. It is narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that whoever recites the Sura al-Adiyat and makes a habit of reciting it, God will resurrect him to accompany Imam Ali (a) on the Day of Judgement and he will be among Imam Ali's (a) companions and friends.[10]

In the instruction of Ja'far al-Tayyar prayer, it is mentioned to recite Sura al-Adiyat in the second rak'a after the recitation of Qur'an 1 (Sura al-Fatiha).[11]

Notes

  1. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1267.
  2. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 27, p. 241.
  3. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 27, p. 236.
  4. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 190.
  5. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 166.
  6. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1267.
  7. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 1267.
  8. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  9. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 27, p. 240.
  10. Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 27, p. 237; Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 801.
  11. Qummī, Mafātīḥ al-jinān, p. 66.

References

  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
  • Qummī, Shaykh ʿAbbās. Mafātīḥ al-jinān. Tehran: Nashr-i Mashʿar, 1386 Sh.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī & Yazdī Ṭabāṭabāyī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.