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Sura al-Haqqa

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Sura al-Haqqa
al-Qalam← →al-Ma'arij
سوره حاقه.jpg
Sura Number 69
Juz' 29
Revelation
Revelation Number 78
Makki/Madani Makki
Information
Verse Count 52
Word Count 261
Letter Count 1133
This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Haqqa; to read its text see text:Sura al-Haqqa.

Sūra al-Ḥāqqa (Arabic: سُورَة الحاقَّة) is the sixty ninth sura of the Qur'an. It is a Makki sura and located in the juz' twenty nine of the Qur'an. Since the word, "al-Hāqqa", has occurred three times in its first three verses, it came to be called "Sura al-Haqqa". "Al-haqqa" in these verses refers to the Day of Resurrection. The sura is mainly concerned with the resurrection and its characterization, its inevitable occurrence, and the fate of people who denied it.

Well-known verses of this sura include the verses forty four-forty six according to which if the Prophet (s) untruthfully attributes a saying to God, God will avenge and cut his aorta. According to some hadiths, if a person recites Sura al-Haqqa, God will ease the evaluation of his actions on the Day of Judgment, and the recitation of this sura in obligatory daily prayers as well as nafilas is an effect of the belief in God and the Prophet (s).

Introduction

  • Naming

The three first verses of the sura are about "al-Haqqa", and this is why it came to be called "Sura al-Haqqa". "Al-haqqa" refers to the Day of Resurrection. The Arabic word, "ḥāqqa", is derived from the word, "ḥaqq" (the truth). It literally means what is inevitable, predestined, and real.[1]

  • Order and Place of Revelation

Sura al-Haqqa is a Makki sura of the Qur'an and the seventy eighth sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the current order of compilation, it is the sixty ninth sura,[2] located in twenty ninth juz' of the Qur'an.

  • Number of the Verses and Other Features

Sura al-Haqqa has fifty two verses, 261 words, and 1133 letters. It counts as one of the mufassalat suras of the Qur'an (the ones with numerous and short verses).[3]

Contents

The main topic of Sura al-Haqqa is the resurrection. The central topics of the sura are a cursory mention of past people who denied the resurrection, particularly the people of 'Ad, those of Thamud, and the Pharaoh; the situation on the Day of Resurrection and the division of people into Companions of the Right (Ashab al-Yamin) and Companions of the Left (Ashab al-Shimal) who are, respectively, happy and miserable; endorsement of Qur'anic remarks and the greatness of the Qur'an.[4]

Content of Sura al-Haqqa[5]
 
 
 
 
Impact of the belief in the resurrection on the human fate
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First topic: verses 1-12
Impact of denying the resurrection in the human life in this world
 
Second topic: verses 13-37
Impact of the belief in the resurrection on the life of the humans in the afterlife
 
Third topic: verses 38-52
Truth of the Quranic teachings concerning the resurrection
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First point: verses 1-3
Greatness and truth of the Day of Resurrection
 
First point: verses 13-16
Rise of the Day of Resurrection after the collapse of the current order of the world
 
First point: verses 38-47
Quranic teachings as words of God, not the Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second point: verses 4-10
Death of people who denied the resurrection with divine punishments
 
Second point: verses 17-18
Presence of people before God
 
Second point: verses 48-52
Three features of the Quranic teachings
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third point: verses 11-12
Survival of the believers and the followers of the prophets
 
Third point: verses 19-24
Afterlife rewards for believers in the resurrection
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth point: verses 25-37
Afterlife punishments for people who deny the resurrection

Receptive Ears of Ali (a)

According to a hadith, when the verse twelve of Sura al-Haqqa was revealed,

The Prophet (s) told Imam Ali (a): "this refers to your ears".[6] There is also a hadith from Imam Ali (a) in which he said: "I am the receptive ear."[7] Some Sunni exegetes of the Qur'an have also taken the verse to be concerned with Imam Ali (a).[8]

Also, many books of exegesis and hadiths have quoted a hadith according to which the Prophet (s) said after the revelation of this verse: "I have asked God to make 'Ali's ears such conscious and capacious ears". Imam 'Ali (a) is quoted as saying: "after this, I never forgot anything that I heard from the Prophet. I always remembered everything he said".[9]

Famous Verse

Infallibility of the Prophet (s) in Transmission of Revelation

These verses warn that if the Prophet (s) untruthfully attributes anything to God, God will avenge. What these verses mean is that it is impossible for the Messenger of God to make up any false sayings. Thus, the Prophet (s) is truthful in what he says, and what he says is, indeed, the divine saying.[10]

According to a hadith cited in Tafsir al-burhan, when the Prophet (s) said: "of whomsoever I have been the master (the mawla), 'Ali here is to be his master" (Hadith al-Ghadir), someone said that this is not what God said and so, the Prophet (s) has untruthfully attributed a saying to God. The above verses were revealed to the Prophet (s) at this time.[11]

Merites and Benefites

The Prophet (s) said: "if a person recites Sura al-Haqqa, God will make the evaluation of his actions easy".[12] There is a hadith from Imam al-Baqir (a) in which he says: "try to frequently recite Sura al-Haqqa, because its recitation in obligatory daily prayers and nafilas is an effect of the belief in God and the Prophet (s), since the sura is revealed about Imam 'Ali (a) and Mu'awiya. If a person recites the sura until he meets God, his faith will be protected".[13]

Some hadiths have recommended the recitation of this sura for pregnant women in order to protect what is inside them (against dangers), as well as for helping a baby become smarter (by writing the sura and washing it with water and then having the infant drink the water).

Notes

  1. Ṭabāṭabāyī, ‘’al-Mīzān’’, vol. 19, p. 392.
  2. Maʿrifat, ‘’Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān’’, vol. 1, p. 167.
  3. Khurramshāhī, ‘’Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān’’, vol. 2, p. 1258.
  4. Ṭabāṭabāyī, ‘’al-Mīzān’’, vol. 19, p. 391-392.
  5. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  6. Kulaynī, ‘’al-Kāfī’’, vol. 1, p. 423.
  7. Baḥrānī, ‘’al-Burhān’’, vol. 5, p. 471.
  8. Suyūṭī, ‘’al-Durr al-manthūr’’, vol. 6, p. 260; Thaʿlabī, ‘’al-Kashf wa l-bayān’’, vol. 10, p. 28.
  9. Makārim Shīrāzī, ‘’Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna’’, vol. 5, p. 262.
  10. Ṭabāṭabāyī, ‘’al-Mīzān’’, vol. 19, p. 675-676.
  11. Baḥrānī, ‘’al-Burhān’’, vol. 5, p. 480.
  12. Ṭabrisī, ‘’Majmaʿ al-bayān’’, vol. 10, p. 514.
  13. Ṣadūq, ‘’Thawāb al-aʿmāl’’, p. 119.

References

  • Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim b. Sulaymān. ‘’Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān’’. Qom: Bunyād-i Biʿthat, 1389 Sh.
  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. ‘’Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī’’. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. ‘’Al-Kāfī’’. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. ‘’Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna’’. Edited by Aḥmad ʿAlī Bābāyī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1382 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. ‘’Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān’’. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
  • Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ‘’Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl’’. Second edition. Qom: Intishārāt-i Amīr, 1368 Sh.
  • Suyūṭī, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr al-. ‘’Al-Durr al-manthūr fī tafsīr al-maʾthūr’’. Qom: Kitābkhāna-yi Āyatollāh Marʿashī al-Najafī, 1404 AH.
  • Thaʿlabī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-. ‘’Al-Kashf wa l-bayān ʿan tafsīr al-Qurʾān’’. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1422 AH.
  • Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. ‘’Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān’’. Second edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1974.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. ‘’Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān’’. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī & Yazdī Ṭabāṭabāyī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.