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Friday Prayer

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The Friday Prayer in Tehran, Iran.
Friday prayer in Ramadan. The Dome of the Rock is seen in the background as Palestinians pray near Israeli police standing guard in the Arab east Jerusalem neighbourhood of Ras al-Amud
The Friday prayer in Fatihpur Mosque in India

The Friday prayer (Arabic: صَلاة الجُمُعَة) is a congregational prayer with two rak'as, prayed in the Friday noon instead of the noon prayer, there is two sermons said by imam al-jumu'a who also leads the prayer. Most of the Shi'a faqihs consider praying the Friday prayer, in the time of the occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (aj), as an optionally incumbent duty.

In Sura al-Jumu'a, the importance of the Friday prayer is stated; also in hadith the Friday prayer is referred to as the "hajj of the poor" and leaving it causes the hypocrisy and difficulties in the one's life.

Holding the Friday prayer is one of the signs of the unity of the Islamic society and it is necessary to be held congregational. Considering the political and social content of the sermons, the Friday prayer is a worship which has also a political and social importance.

Importance

Furu' al-Din

Prayer
Wajib: Daily prayersEssentials of PrayerFriday prayerEid prayeral-Ayat prayerFuneral PrayerIstijari prayer

Mustahab: Night prayerGhufayla prayerJa'far al-Tayyar Prayer


Other types of worship
FastingKhumsZakatHajjJihadEnjoining the goodForbidding the evilTawalliTabarri


Rulings on Tahara
Wudu'GhuslTayammumNijasatMutahhirat


Civil Law
WikalaWasiyyaDimanKifalaIrth


Family Law
MarriageTemporary marriagePolygamyDivorceMahrBreastfeedingIntercourseSexual gratification


Criminal Law
JudgmentDiyatHududQisasTa'zir


Economic Laws
Bay'IjaraQardRiba


Other Laws
HijabSadaqaNadhrTaqlidFoods and drinksWaqf


See also
FiqhRulings of Shari'aManual of Islamic lawPubertyWajibHaramMustahabMubahMakruh

In Sura al-Jumu'a, Allah clearly commands the faithful to take part in the Friday prayer:

In hadith, the benefits of the Friday prayer is expressed:

  • Forgiveness of sins[1]
  • Reduction of the difficulties in the Judgment Day[2]
  • Great rewards for every step to the place of the Friday prayer[3]
  • The fire of Hell is prohibited from the one's body[4]
  • Imam 'Ali (a) was used to temporarily release some of prisoners to participate in the Friday prayer.[5]

Faqihs, referring to Sura al-Jumu'a, forbade any act that results in the missing of the Friday prayer. In fiqh sources there have always been a chapter of the book of prayer (kitab al-Salat), dedicated to the Friday prayer.[6] Also, writing separate fiqh books about the Friday prayer was common from the first centuries of Islam.[7] After the prevalence of the Friday prayer in Iran in Safawid era, the writing of treatises about the Friday prayer took speed.[8] Most of the great faqihs have treatises about the subject, criticizing or defending others' opinions.[9] This treatises could be divided into four kinds:

  • The ones that are after showing that the Friday prayer is an individual duty.
  • The ones that show that the Friday prayer is allowed or is an optionally incumbent duty.
  • The ones that show that the Friday prayer is forbidden.
  • The ones that the exact opinion of the writer is not clear.[10]

Benefits

There are five great congresses in Islam:

Considering the introduction of important political and social matters in the sermons before it, the following benefits has been mentioned for the Friday prayer:

  • Giving awareness to people about Islamic knowledge and important social and political issues.
  • Unity and solidarity of Muslims.
  • Renewal of the religious spirit and moral happiness
  • Cooperation in solving the problems

Obligation

Shi'a and Sunni faqihs have referred to the verse 9 of sura al-Jumu'a[Note 1], numerous hadiths,[11] and ijma' to prove that the Friday prayer is obligatory.[12] Some have rejected the indication of the verse, that the Friday prayer is obligatory, and considered the meaning of the verse as the order for the believers to participate in a Friday prayer which is held in the proper state, and blames who despite a properly held Friday prayer, don't participate in it and engage in other activities like business.[13]

The Friday prayer is not obligatory for the following:

  • Women
  • Passengers
  • The sick and who cannot participate in the Friday prayer like the blind, the deaf, and the old.
  • Servants
  • Who fear a bodily or financial loss by participating the Friday prayer
  • Who has a distance more than 2 farsakhs (~10-11 Km) from the place of the Friday prayer.[14]

In the Time of the Occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a)

Permissibility or forbiddance of holding the Friday prayer in the time of the occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a), is one of the controversial topics among Shi'a faqihs. Three opinions exists: forbiddance, optionally incumbent duty, individual duty.[15]

Forbiddance

Some of early Shi'a faqihs like Sallar al-Daylami[16] and Ibn Idris al-Hilli,[17] and following them, some of later faqihs, including al-Fadil al-Hindi, considered the Friday prayer only legitimate when held by an infallible Imam or someone assigned by him as the imam al-Jumu'a.[18] Followers of the fatwa of forbiddance of the Friday prayer, consider the assignment of the infallible Imam necessary for holding the Friday prayer and as the two conditions are not fulfilled in the time of occultation, so holding the Friday prayer is not permissible.[19]

Individual Duty

Although in many of the early Shi'a sources of fiqh it is emphasized that the Friday prayer is obligatory, it is not clearly stated that only the infallible Imam or his representative can hold the Friday prayer.[20] Yet all of Shi'a faqihs counted the presence or permission of a righteous ruler[21] or Imam,[22] as one of the conditions of the Friday prayer. The righteousness of imam al-Jumu'a is only mentioned by Shi'a faqihs and Sunnis didn't mentioned it.[23]

Although the opinion that the Friday prayer is an individual duty, have been discussed among faqihs after the major occultation, more or less;[24] al-Shahid al-Thani proposed it seriously in the 10th/16th century.[25] Some faqihs, including his grandson, al-Sayyid Muhammad 'Ali al-'Amili, followed him.[26] This opinion became prevalent in Safawid era, especially because of the social and political background.[27] According to this opinion, when the conditions of holding the Friday prayer is fulfilled, it is obligatory just like in the time of ruling of the infallible Imam, and it does not need the special or general assignment by him. Also, it is said that holding the Friday prayer is one of the tasks of faqihs in time of the occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a), just like the jurisprudence and judgment. Most of the advocates of the opinion were of the Akhbari school of thought, although some famous Usulis, like al-Shahid al-Thani, were of the supporters of the opinion.[28]

Optionally Incumbent Duty

Many faqihs of the middle and recent periods of Shi'a are supporters of the opinion that the Friday prayer is an optionally incumbent duty; including al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli,[29] al-'Allama al-Hilli,[30] Ibn Fahd al-Hilli,[31] al-Shahid al-Awwal,[32] al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki.[33] Recognizing the Friday prayer as an optionally incumbent duty means that holdinyg it is recommended by itself, but when someone prays it, it is sufficient instead of the noon prayer.[34]

There are reasons like the fact that companions of Imams and early faqihs, did not hold the Friday prayer.[35] The opinion that the Friday prayer is an optional incumbent duty is more accepted among the recent faqihs after the 13th/19th century.[36] Generally among Usuli faqihs this opinion is more accepted, although some believe that it is forbidden.[37]

Conditions

In the Friday prayer, in addition to general conditions of congregational prayers, some other conditions are also necessary:

Minimum Number of Participants

Faqihs of Islamic sects have different ideas about the minimum number of participants required for the Friday prayer: Shi'a faqihs[38] consider the participants must be at least 5 persons,[39] some other consider the number at least 7. Hanfis consider the presence of at least 3, Shafi'is and Hanbalis at least 40, and Malikis at least 12 persons necessary for holding the Friday prayer.[40]

Minimum Distance between Two Friday Prayers

Another condition for the Friday prayer, which Shi'a faqihs and most of other Islamic sects have mentioned, is that there must be a minimum distance between two Friday prayers, or there must not be two Friday prayers in one city. According to Shi'a faqihs at least the distance of one farsakh (~5 Km) must be between two Friday prayers, if the condition is not fulfilled, the latter Friday prayer is void.[41]

Place

The Friday prayer is usually held in al-masjid al-jami' (the general mosque) of each city.[42] Some factors, like the development and expansion of cities, presence of different sects and schools, and political and security considerations, cause that multiple Friday prayers become held in one city.[43]

According to Ibn Battuta, in the 7th/13th century, the Friday prayer was being held in 11 mosques of Baghdad.[44] In the Mamalik period because of the immensity of the population, the Friday prayer was held even in local mosques and schools.[45]

History

The Friday prayer became legislated in Mecca in 12/633. Then, it wasn't possible for the Prophet (s) to hold the Friday prayer in Mecca, but he wrote a letter to Mus'ab b. 'Umayr to hold the Friday prayer in Medina.[46] According to another report, the first Friday prayer held in Medina by As'ad b. Zurara.[47] By the entrance of the Prophet (s) to Medina, the Friday prayer held by him.[48] After Medina, the second place in which the Friday prayer held was 'Abd al-Qays, a village in al-Bahrain.[49]

After the Prophet (s), holding the Friday prayer was common in the caliphate of the first three caliphs and also in the period of the rule of Imam 'Ali (a) and Imam al-Hasan (a).[50]

Some of hadiths like al-Sha'baniyya sermon and some of the sermons of Nahj al-balagha are originally sermons of the Friday prayer.

In the periods of Umayyads (41/661-132/749) and Abbasids (132/749-656/1258), the Friday prayer was held by the caliph or his representatives.[51] The caliphs were assigning the imam al-jumu'a for the capital city,[52] and the assignment of the imam al-jumu'as for other cities was the responsibility of the rulers of the places.[53]

Participation of Imams in Friday Prayer

In the view of Shi'a, the Friday prayer held by unjust rulers and their appointed imam al-jumu'as are illegitimate, yet according to some hadiths, Imams (a) and their companions had sometimes participated in the Friday prayer due to taqiyya or other reasons.[54] Sometimes, the opposing parties of a regime were not participating in the Friday prayer for showing their opposition.[55] Generally, not participating in the Friday prayer was a negative record.[56]

Shi'a Friday Prayers

One of the oldest reports about the Friday prayer in Shi'a societies, is the Friday prayer held in 329/740 in Buratha mosque, in Baghdad, by Ahmad b. al-Fadl al-Hashimi.[57] Even in the sedition of 349/960 in which the Friday prayer of Baghdad suspended, the Friday prayer of Buratha mosque had no break;[58] but in 420/1029, by appointment of a Sunni imam al-jumu'a by the caliph, the Friday prayer suspended for a period.[59] Also the Friday prayer was held in Jami' Ibn Tulun (359/969) and in al-Azhar jami' mosque (361/971) in Egypt.[60] Also there are some evidences that in the first centuries of Islam the Friday prayer was held in the cities.[61]

In Iran

Safawid Period

The Friday prayer gradually spread in the Shi'a Iran, by the time of Shah Isma'il I (r. 905/1499-930/1523). This was because of the efforts of Shi'a scholars especially al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki (d. 940/1533) for the spread of the Friday prayer.[62] Despite the agreement of many of faqihs, including some scholars of Jabal Amel, with al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, and the support of the Safawid government, the Friday prayer spread gradually in Iran, as saying the Friday prayer wasn't very common among Shi'a, and some scholars were against the holding of the Friday prayer in the time of occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a).[63] Discussions and debates between scholars, about holding the Friday prayer in the time of the occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a), came to the extent that Shah Sulayman I (r. 1077/1666-1105/1693) arranged a meeting of faqihs, so they could reach a result.[64]

Shah Tahmasb I (r. 930/1523-984/1576) assigned an imam al-jumu'a for each city, by the advice of al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki.[65] In the time of Shah 'Abbas I (r. 996/1587-1038/1628) the official title of imam al-jumu'a became established.[66] Usually the Shaykh al-Islam of each city had the title of imam al-jumu'a but sometimes scholars who were not Shaykh al-Islam became imam al-jumu'a, for example Mulla Muhsin Fayd Kashani (d. 1091/1680).[67]

The first Friday prayer of the Safawid era was held by al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki in the Masjid Jami' 'Atiq in Isfahan.

Some of the important imam al-jumu'as of the time are al-Shaykh al-Baha'i (d. 1030/1620), Mirdamad (d. 1041/1631), Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi (d. 1070/1659), Muhammad Baqir al-Majlisi (d. 1110/1698), Mulla Hadi Sabziwari (d. 1090/1679), and al-Shaykh Lutf Allah al-Isfahani (d. 1032/1622).[68]

Al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki wrote a book about the permissibility of holding the Friday prayer in time of occultation of Imam Mahdi (a) in 921/1515, the book is actually a treatise in the subject of wilayat al-faqih. Some of his students and contrary scholars wrote treatises in the criticism of his opinion or for its confirmation.[69]

Qajar Period

Like the Safawid period (1210/1795-1344/1925), in the Qajar period the imam al-jumu'a was a governmental post.[70] Along with the decrease of validity of governmental religious posts, imam al-jumu'as lost their religious and political importance. In late Qajar period (Iranian constitutional revolution) some of imam al-jumu'a stood against the constitutionalist scholars.[71]

Pahlawi Period

In the Pahlawi period (1343/1925-1398/1978) imam al-jumu'as, especially in big cities, had official relations with the government, so did not have popularity and the Friday prayer was not common.[72] Some scholars, independent from the government, were holding the Friday prayer and these prayers were popular.[73]

Islamic Republic Period

Friday Prayer in University of Tehran lead by Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani

After the Islamic revolution in Iran (1398/1978) holding the Friday prayer became popular again. The first Friday prayer was held with the leadership of Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani (d. 1399/1979) –assigned by Imam Khomeini- in the University of Tehran.

Every year in the last Friday of Ramadan the demonstration of al-Quds Day is held before the Friday prayer.

Selection of Imam al-Jumu'a

Main article: Imam al-Jumu'a

Shi'a faqihs and faqihs of most of the Sunni sects didn't consider the presence or permission of the ruler as a necessary condition for the imam al-jumu'a, and referred to the Friday prayer held by Imam 'Ali (a) when the caliph 'Uthman was under siege.[74] After all, the imam al-jumu'a have always been a governmental position in the history of Islam.[75]

Hanafis believe that presence of the ruler, or his representative, or his permission is necessary for the Friday prayer even if the ruler is unjust.

How to Pray the Friday Prayer

First, two sermons are said by the imam al-jumu'a. Then a prayer is said with two rak'as. The prayer has two recommended qunuts: one before the ruku' of the first rak'a, and the second after the ruku' of the second rak'a.

Sermons

Sermos of Friday prayer in Islamic Center Hamburg.

The Friday prayer begins with two sermons which stand in place of the two rak'as of the noon prayer.[76]

Beside the conditions of the imam of the congregational prayer,[77] the imam al-jumu'a must have other conditions, including:

  • Having an audible, explicit speech,
  • Bravery,
  • Being familiar with the prudence of Islam. Also the imam al-jumu'a must be chosen from the most knowledgeable and noble people.[78]

Imam al-Rida (a) says: "the sermons are set, so that God had let the ruler of Muslims to advice people to the obedience of God, and warn them about the sins and inform them about their prudence and about the important news. There are two sermons, so that the first sermon is about the praise and sanctification of God, and the second sermon is about the needs, warnings, supplications, and instructions useful for the society."[79]

Time and Content

According to most of the Shi'a scholars, the sermons of the Friday prayer must be said after the noon.[80] The sermons must contain the praise of God, sending peace upon the Prophet (s), advice to God wariness (taqwa), and reciting a small sura of the Qur'an.[81]

Hearing the Sermons

People must avoid any action that stops them from hearing the sermons.[82]

Imam 'Ali (a) says: "The participants of the Friday prayer are 3 groups:

  • People who take place in the Friday prayer before imam al-jumu'a and are quiet and hear the sermons, their participation is the kaffara (atonment) of the sins of ten days,
  • People who participate in the Friday prayer and speak to each other, their benefit from the Friday prayer is just their talking and meeting each other.
  • People who participate in the Friday prayer and when imam al-Jumu'a begins the sermons they begin to pray; these are also acting against the tradition, they are from the people that if they want something from God, if he wants gives it to them and if he doesn't, he won't."[83]

Prayer with Two Rak'as

After the two sermons, the Friday prayer with two rak'as is said. It is recommended to recite the Sura al-Jumu'a in the first rak'a and Sura al-Munafiqun in the second; or Sura al-A'la in the first, and Sura al-Qashiya in the second rak'a. Recitation of the suras aloud (jahr) is also recommended.[84]

Two Qunuts

According to Shi'a faqihs it is recommended to perform qunut in the first rak'a, before ruku', and in the second rak'a after ruku'.[85]

Notes

  1. Al-'Allama al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 86, p. 197
  2. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Man la yahduruh al-faqih, vol. 1, p. 427
  3. Nuri, Musadrak al-wasa'il, vol. 2, p. 504
  4. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Man la yahduruh al-faqih, vol. 1, p. 427
  5. Nuri, Musadrak al-wasa'il, vol. 6, p. 27
  6. Malik b. Anas, al-Muwatta', vol. 1, p. 101-112; al-Shafi'i, Al-Umm, vol. 1, p. 188-209; al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 3, p. 418-428; al-Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Muqni' , p. 144-148; al-'Asqalani, Fath al-bari, vol. 2, p. 450-544
  7. e.g. al-Shafi'i, Muhammad b. Idris, al-Jumu'a; al-Ash'ari, Ahmad b. Musa, al-Jumu'a wa l-'idayn; al-Nasa'i, 'Abd al-Rahman, al-Jumu'a; al-Ju'fi, Muhammad b. Ahmad, Salat al-jumu'a.
  8. Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 37
  9. Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 37-38; Ja'farian, Safawiyya dar 'arsa-yi din, vol. 3, p. 251
  10. Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 58, 92
  11. Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, p. 424-425; al-Nasa'i, Sunan al-Nasa'i, vol. 3, p. 85-89'; al-Hurr al-'Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi'a, vol. 7, p. 295-302; Nuri, Mustadrak al-wasa'il, vol. 6, p. 10
  12. Al-Shawkani, Nayl al-awtar, vol. 3, p. 254-255; al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Khilaf, vol. 1, p. 593; al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, al-Mu'tabar fi sharh al-mukhtasar, vol. 2, p. 274
  13. Muntaziri, al-Badr al-zahir, p, 6; Gharawi Tabrizi, al-Tanqih fi sharh al-'urwat al-wuthqa, vol. 2, p. 274
  14. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Muqni'a, p, 164; al-Husayni al-'Amili, Miftah al-kirama, vol. 8, p. 463-483; al-Zuhayli, al-Fiqh al-Islami wa adillatuh, vol. 2, p. 265-268
  15. See: Rida Nizhad, Salat al-jumu'a, p, 28
  16. Rida Nizhad, Salat al-jumu'a, p, 77
  17. Al-Hilli, al-Sara'ir, vol. 1, p. 304
  18. Al-Fadil al-Hindi, Kashf al-litham, vol. 1, p. 246-248; al-Tabataba'i, Riyad al-masa'il, vol. 4, p. 73-75; al-Naraqi, Mustanad al-Shi'a, vol. 6, p. 60; Khwansari, Jami' al-madarik, vol. 1, p. 524
  19. Al-Fadil al-Hindi, Kashf al-litham, vol. 1, p. 246-248; al-Tabataba'i, Riyad al-masa'il, vol. 4, p. 73-75; al-Naraqi, Mustanad al-Shi'a, vol. 6, p. 60; Khwansari, Jami' al-madarik, vol. 1, p. 524
  20. e.g. al-Klayni, al- Kafi, vol. 3, p. 418-419; al-Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Amali, p. 573
  21. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Muqni'a, p, 676; al-Sayyid al-Murtada, Masa'il al-nasiriyyat, p. 265; al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Mabsut fi fiqh al-imamiyya, vol. 1, p. 143
  22. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada, Rasa'il al-Sharif al-Murtada, vol. 3, p. 41
  23. Al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, al-Mu'tabar fi sharh al-mukhtasar, vol. 2, p. 279-280
  24. Rida Nizhad, Salat al-jumu'a, vol. 29-65
  25. Al-Shahid al-Thani, Rasa'il, p. 197
  26. Al-Musawi al-'Amili, Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam, vol. 4, p. 25
  27. Al-Yazdi, al-Hujja fi wujub salat al-jumu'a, p. 53-54
  28. See: al-Shahid al-Thani, al-Rawdat al-bahiyya, vol. 1, p. 299-301; Fayd Kashani, al-Shahab al-thaqib, p. 47-102; Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'a, vol. 15, p. 63, 67, 73; Jabiri, Salat al-jumu'a, p. 54-55
  29. Al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli, Shara'i' al-Islam, vol. 1, p. 76
  30. Al-'Allama al-Hilli, Mukhtalaf al-Shi'a, vol. 2, p. 238-239
  31. Al-Hilli, al-Muhadhdhab al-Bari', vol. 1, p. 414
  32. Al-Shahid al-Awwal, al-Durus al-shar'iyya, vol. 1, p. 186
  33. Al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, Rasa'il al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, vol. 1, p. 158-171
  34. Al-Naraqi, Mustanad al-Shi'a, vol. 6, p. 59; Tawdih al-masa'il maraji' , vol. 1, p. 871-872; al-'Allama al-Hilli, Tadhkirat al-fuqaha, vol. 4, p. 27; al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, Rasa'il al-Muhaqqiq al-Karaki, vol. 1, p. 163; al-Husayni al-'Amili, Miftah al-kirama, vol. 8, p. 216
  35. See: Muballighi, "'Anasur-i ta'thirgudhar dar wujub-i ta'ini-yi namaz-i jum'a dar rawish-i akhbarian", p. 211-216
  36. Kashif al-Ghita, Kashf al-ghita 'an mubhamat al-shari'a al-gharra, vol. 3, p. 248; al-Najafi, Jawahir al-kalam, vol. 11, p. 151; Khomeini, Tahrir al-wasila, vol. 1, p. 205; See: Danish Pazhuh, Fihrist, vol. 14, p. 3604
  37. Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 37
  38. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada, Rasa'il al-Sharif al-Murtada, vol. 1, p.222; Ibn Idris al-Hilli, al-Sara'ir, vol. 1, p. 290; al-Fadil al-Hindi, Kashf al-litham, vol. 4, p. 215
  39. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, Tahdhib al-ahkam, p. 103
  40. Kasani, ‌Bada'i' al-sana'i' fi tartib al-shara'i' , vol. 1, p. 266
  41. Al-Husayni al-'Amili, Miftah al-kirama, vol. 2, p. 130-135; al-Najafi, Jawahir al-kalam, vol. 11, p. 245
  42. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 4, p. 176; al-Mawardi, al-Ahkam al-sultaniyya wa l-wilayat al-diniyya, p. 164
  43. Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam fi tarikh al-muluk wa l-umam, vol. 13, p. 5-6; Yaqut al-Hamawi, Mu'jam al-buldan, under the word "جمعه"; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa l-nihaya, vol. 5, chapter. 10, p. 105; vol. 6, chapter. 11, p. 332
  44. Ibn Battuta, Rahala Ibn Battuta, vol. 1, p. 233
  45. Al-Qalqashandi, Subh al-a'sha, vol. 3, p. 362
  46. Al-Tabarani, al-Mu'jam al-kabir, vol. 17, p. 267; Ahmadi Miyanaji, Makatib al-rasul, p. 239
  47. Ibn Maja, Sunan Ibn Maja, vol. 1, p. 344; al-Nasa'i, Sunan al-Nasa'i, vol. 8, p. 150
  48. See: al-Mas'udi, Muruj al-dhahab, vol. 3, p. 19
  49. Al-Halabi, al-Sira al-Halabiyya, vol. 2, p. 59
  50. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, vol. 3, p. 447, 2740; Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh madinat Dimashq, vol. 13, p. 251; Ibn Kathir, al-Bidaya wa l-nihaya, vol. 4, Chapter. 7, p. 189; Mahmudi, Nahj al-sa'ada, vol. 1, p. 427, 499; vol. 2, p. 595, 714: vol. 3, p. 153, 605
  51. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 2, p. 285, 365; al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, vol. 8, p. 570-579, 594; vol. 9, p. 222
  52. Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam fi tarikh al-muluk wa l-umam, vol. 14, p. 383; vol. 15, p. 351
  53. Al-Qalqashandi, Subh al-a'sha, vol. 10, p. 19-20
  54. Al-Zurari, Tarikh al Zurara, vol. 2, p. 27; Nuri, Mustadrak al-wasa'il, vol. 6, p. 40; Jabiri, Salat al-jumu'a, p. 24
  55. See: Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam fi tarikh al-muluk wa l-umam, vol. 16, p. 31-32; al-'Allama al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 44, p. 333
  56. Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Tabari, vol. 4, p. 328
  57. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 1, p. 430
  58. Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil fi l-tarikh, vol. 8, p. 533
  59. Ibn al-Jawzi, al-Muntazam fi tarikh al-muluk wa l-umam, vol. 15, p. 198-201
  60. Qummi, al-Kuna wa l-alqab, vol. 2, p. 417; Ja'farian, Safawiyya dar 'arsa-yi din, vol. 3, p. 258-259
  61. Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 23-25
  62. Muntaziri, al-Badr al-zahir, p. 7; Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 26-27
  63. Jabiri, Salat al-jumu'a, p. 50-54; Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 28
  64. Al-Qazwini, Tatmim amal al-amil, p. 172-173
  65. Agha Buzurg, Tabaqat a'lam al-Shi'a, Chapter. 1, p. 176; Jabiri, Salat al-jumu'a, p. 50-51
  66. Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a, vol. 25, p. 28
  67. Ja'farian, Safawiyya dar 'arsa-yi din, vol. 3, p. 237
  68. See: al-Majlisi, Lawami' sahibqirani, vol. 4, p. 513; al-Khwansari, Jami' al-madarik, vol. 2, p. 68-78, 122-123; al-Bahrani, Lu'lu'at al-bahryn, p. 61, 95, 136, 445
  69. Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 37-38; Ja'farian, Safawiyya dar 'arsa-yi din, vol. 3, p. 251
  70. Muntaziri, al-Badr al-zahir, p. 7
  71. Ja'farian, Namaz-i jum'a, p. 32
  72. Yazdi, Wazayif-i ruwhaniyyat, p. 84
  73. See: Kishwari, Farzanigan-i khwansar, p. 133
  74. Al-Shafi'i, al-Umm, vol. 1, p. 192; Ibn Qudama, al-Mughni, vol. 2, p. 172-174; al-Nawawi, al-Majmu' , vol. 4, p. 509
  75. J'afarian, Safawiyya dar 'arsa-yi din, vol. 3, p. 255
  76. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada, Rasa'il al-Sharif al-Murtada, vol. 3, p. 41; al-Rafi'i al-Qazwini, Fath al-'aziz, vol. 4, p. 576; al-Nawawi, al-Majmu' , vol. 4, p. 513
  77. Tawdih al-masa'il maraji' , vol. 1, p.872-873
  78. Ibn 'Attar, Adab al-khatib, p. 89-96; Khomeini, Tahrir al-wasila, vol. 1, p. 209; Tawdih al-masa'il maraji' , vol. 1, p. 879-880
  79. Al-Hurr al-'Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi'a, vol. 7, p. 344
  80. Al-'Allama al-Hilli, Tadhkirat al-fuqaha, vol. 4, p. 68-69; Ha'iri, Salat al-jumu'a, p. 193-199
  81. Sallar al-Daylami, al-Marasim al-'alawiyya, p. 77; al-Hurr al-'Amili, Wasa'il al-Shi'a, vol. 7, p. 344; Tawdih al-masa'il maraji', vol. 1, p. 878-879
  82. Al-Sarakhsi, al-Mabsut, vol. 2, p. 29-30; al-Nawawi, Rawda al-talibin, vol. 1, p. 573; al-Khoei, Minhaj al-salihin, vol. 1, p. 187
  83. Al-'Allama al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 86, p. 198
  84. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Muqni'a, p. 141; Kasani, Bada'i' al-sana'i', vol. 1, p. 269; al-Najafi, Jawahir al-kalam, vol. 11, p. 133-134
  85. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Khilaf, vol. 1, p. 631-632; Tawdih al-masa'il maraji' , vol. 1, p. 878
  1. O you who have faith! When the call is made for prayer on Friday, hurry toward the remembrance of Allah, and leave all business. That is better for you, should you know. (Qur'an 62:9)

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