Al-Shahid al-Thani

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Al-Shahid al-Thanihttp://en.wikishia.net
Personal Information
Full Name Zayn al-Din b. Nur al-Din 'Ali b. Ahmad al-'Amili al-Juba'i
Well-Known Relatives Al-'Allama al-Hilli, Abu Mansur Jamal al-Din Hasan
Birth Shawwal 13, 911/1506
Residence Jabal Amel, Demascus
Studied in Jabal Amel, Damascus, Egypt, Iraq
Death 966/1559
Burial Place His body was thrown to the sea
Scholarly Information
Professors 'Ali b. Ahmad al-'Amili (his father), 'Ali b. 'Abd al-'Ali al-Maysi, Al-Sayyid al-Hasan b. Ja'far al-Karaki, ...
Students Husayn b. 'Abd al-Samad al-Harithi, Ali b. Zuhra al-Juba'i, Al-Sayyid Nur al-Din al-Karaki al-'Amili, ...
Works Rawd al-jinan fi sharh Irshad al-Adhhan, Masalik al-afham fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam, Al-Rawda al-Bahiyya fi sharh al-Lum'a al-Dimashqiya, ...

Zayn al-Dīn b. Nūr al-Dīn ʿAlī b. ʾAḥmad al-ʿAmilī al-Jubaʿī (Arabic: زين الدين بن نورالدین علي بن أحمد العاملي الجُبَعي) (b. 911/1505 - d. 966/1559) known as al-Shahīd al-Thānī (الشهيد الثاني) is a descendant of al-'Allama al-Hilli and a grand Shi'a scholar and faqih in the 10th/16th century. Al-Rawda al-bahiyya fi sharh al-lum'a al-dimashqiyya is the greatest works of him in fiqh. He was martyred in 966/1559. He was a widely traveled man and he studied under numerous teachers. He also taught a large number of students in his life.

Birth

Al-Shahid al-Thani was born in Shawwal 13, 911/1506 in a village called Juba' which is in Jabal Amil of Lebanon.

Family

Because family members of al-Shahid al-Thani were all among Shi'a scholars, their family was known as Silsilat al-Dhahab (the golden chain):

Education

When al-Shahid al-Thani was nine, he had learned reciting the holy Quran before he started his education. 'Ali ibn Ahmad al-'Amili, his father, was the first one who taught him. Al-Shahid al-Thani learned Arabic literature, Al-Mukhtasar al-Nafi' (by al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli) and al-Lum'a al-Dimashqiyya (by al-Shahid al-Awwal) and other different books from his father.

After his father passed away in 925/1519, he moved to Mays, a village in Jabal Amel, and learned from 'Ali b. 'Abd al-'Ali al-Maysi for eight years. He studied Shara'i' al-Islam (by al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli), Irshad al-Adhhan and Qawa'id al-Ahkam (both by al-'Allama al-Hilli) on fiqh under al-Maysi.

Travels

Al-Shahid al-Thani had numerous travels in order to learn from a large number of scholars of the time.

After he went to Jabal Amil, he traveled to Karak Nuh to learn Arabic grammar and usul al-fiqh from al-Sayyid Ja'far al-Karaki. After three years, he moved to Damascus to study philosophy and medicine under Shaykh Muhammad b. Makki[Note 1]. He also studied Al-Shatibiyyah under Shaykh Ahmad al-Jabir. While he was in Damascus he learned Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Bukhari under Shams al-Din b. Tulun.

In 942/1536 he moved to Egypt, where he learned usul al-fiqh, geometry, prosody, medicine, tafsir and logic from sixteen different teachers and scholars.

Al-Shahid al-Thani performed pilgrimage to Mecca in 944/1538 and visited the holy shrines of Iraq in 946/1540; he was living in Juba' in those years.

He traveled to Bayt al-Maqdis and obtain a permission to transmit hadith from al-Shaykh Shams al-Din b. Abu l-Latif al-Maqdisi.

In 949/1543 he traveled to Constantinople, where he gave a treatise (on ten knowledges) to Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Qadizada al-Rumi. After a meeting between them, al-Rumi proposed a teaching position in every school he wants. After doing istikhara, al-Shahid al-Thani chose Nuriyya School in Baalbek. Then al-Rumi appointed him as the responsible of Nuriyya School.

Al-Shahid al-Thani returned to Juba' after he had visited Shrines of Imams in 953/1546 He settled there for the rest of his life and dedicated his time to teaching and writing.

Teachers

Scientific Authority

When al-Shahid al-Thani settled in Baalbek, a large number of scholars and intellectuals came to learn from him. Because of his vast knowledge about the Islamic sects, he conducted comprehensive classes in fiqh and beliefs according to the five schools of thought in Islam: Ja'fari, Hanafi, Hanbali, Shafi'i and Maliki. People also found the answer of their questions in religious matters.

Students

  • Nur al-Din 'Ali b. al-Husayn al-Musavi al-'Amili, his son-in-law
  • Al-Sayyid 'Ali al-Husayni al-Jazini al-'Amili, known as Al-Sa'igh
  • Husayn b. 'Abd al-Samad al-Harithi, Shaykh Baha'i's father
  • Ali b. Zuhra al-Juba'i
  • Al-Sayyid Nur al-Din al-Karaki al-'Amili
  • Baha' al-Din Muhammad b. 'Ali al-'Awdi al-Jazini, known as Ibn al-'Awdi
  • Al-Shaykh Muhyi al-Din b. Ahmad al-Maysi
  • Al-Sayyid 'Izz al-Din Husayn b. Abu l-Hasan al-'Amili
  • Al-Shaykh Taj al-Din b. Hilal al-Jaza'iri

Works

Martyrdom

After al-Shahid al-Thani judged a dispute, he was summoned by Sultan. He asked to make a pilgrimage to Mecca before visiting Sultan. On the way back to Constantinople and before meeting the Sultan, he was beheaded by the sea without Sultan's order. His body was left there and then thrown to the sea. He was martyred in 955/1548, but al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Amin mentioned his death in 965/1558.

Quotations on Him

Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili said on al-Shahid al-Thani: "His personality was famous for reliability, knowledge, virtuousness, worship, research, high status and other countless admirable characteristics."[1]

Mustafa b. al-Husayn Tafrishi, a Shi'a scholar in rijal said: "al-Shahid al-Thani was a glorious figure among Shi'a Muslims and reliable scholars; he was a knowledgeable figure whose writings lack mistakes."[2]

Notes

  1. Al-Hurr al-'Amili, Amal al-'Amil, v. 8 p. 87
  2. Mustafa b. Husayn al-Tafrashi, Naqd al-Rijal, v. 2 p. 292
  1. Not to be mistaken with al-Shahid al-Awwal

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from شهید ثانی in Farsi WikiShia.