Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani
|Full Name||Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Husayni Milani|
|Burial Place||Holy Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)|
|Professors||Shaykh Abu l-Qasim Mamaqani, Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani, Diya' al-Din 'Iraqi, Muhammad Husayn Na'ini, ...|
|Students||Sayyid 'Ali Husayni Khamenei, 'Aziz Allah 'Atarudi, Muhammad Taqi Ja'fari, ...|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr, Al-Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din, Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi, Aqa Buzurg Tihrani|
|Works||Muhadarat fi l-fiqh al-Imamiyya, Qadatuna kayfa na'rifuhum, ...|
|Building Seminary schools, sending scholars to various cities, ...|
|supporting the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Iraqi movement, ...|
Sayyid Muḥammad Hādī Ḥusaynī Mīlānī (Arabic: سيد محمد هادي ميلاني) (b.1313/1895 - d.1395/1975) was a Shiite authority (marja') in the 14th/20th century. He spent most of his life in Iraq. He studied with scholars such as Shaykh al-Shari'a al-Isfahani, Diya' al-Din al-'Iraqi, and Muhammad Husayn al-Na'ini. He settled in Mashhad in 1332 Sh./1953. Sayyid Ali Khamenei, the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran, studied with him for a while.
Ayatollah Milani was also active in political and social affairs. He supported the Islamic Revolution of Iran and the Iraqi movement. He contributed to the establishment of Islamic seminary schools, including Haqqani Seminary School. When he moved to Mashhad, the Islamic seminary of Mashhad flourished.
Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani was born in Najaf in Muharram 7, 1313/June 30, 1895. His genealogy goes back to 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a). His father, Sayyid Ja'far Husayni, was a student of Shaykh Hasan Mamaqani. His father passed away when he was a child. His mother was Hasan Mamaqani's daughter and his wife was the daughter of his uncle, 'Abd Allah Mamaqani—the author of Tanqih al-maqal.
Milani began his studies in Najaf and then started teaching there. He frequently traveled to Iran. When he visited the holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a) in Mashhad in 1332 Sh/1953, he stayed there at the request of people and some scholars in Khurasan and started teaching fiqh and usul al-fiqh in Mashhad. He passed away on Rajab 29, 1395/August 7, 1975 and was buried in the holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a).
Teachers & Students
- Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr
- Al-Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din
- Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi
- Aqa Buzurg Tihrani
Transformation in the Islamic Seminary of Mashhad
The Islamic Seminary of Mashhad was revived and founded in 1320s Sh./1940s, and it underwent remarkable changes and developments in 1330s Sh./1950s. The main reason for such a remarkable change —promoting the scholarly and religious position of this seminary— was the migration of Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani to Mashhad and his stay there for more than two decades.
In 1332 Sh./1953, prominent scholars in Mashhad signed a petition to ask Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani (who lived in Karbala at the time) to migrate to Mashhad and start teaching there in order to improve its Islamic seminaries and prevent its students from migrating to other cities such as Qom and Najaf. In 1333 Sh./1954, Milani entered Mashhad and stayed there at the request of scholars there. He was practically in charge of the Islamic Seminary of Mashhad for 22 years. He was also a Shiite authority (marja'), especially after the death of Ayatollah Burujirdi, he founded schools with new structures and organized educational and training programs of the Shiite seminary there. Milani's lectures in usul al-fiqh were based on the method of his teachers, such as Shaykh Muhammad Husayn Gharawi Isfahani and Mirza Muhammad Husayn Na'ini. Nearly 400 advanced students of the Shiite seminary attended his lectures.
Ayatollah Milani's Activities
- In the last years of his life, Milani founded and supported Islamic schools, including Haqqani School and Imam al-Sadiq (a) Seminary School. He also founded other schools for students of Islamic seminaries with courses remarkably different from those of other seminaries.
- The propagation of Islamic teachings was very important for Milani. Thus many Shiite clergies were organized by him and sent to different areas of Iran. They tried to inform people in cities and villages of Islamic teachings.
- Ayatollah Milani sponsored Islamic institutes and organizations that did not belong to the Shiite seminaries, such as the Center for the Propagation of Islamic Truths (Kanun-i Nashr-i Haqa'iq-i Islami). The Center was founded by Muhammad Taqi Shari'ati and some well-known clergies in Mashhad. The Center considerably contributed to the propagation of modern Islamic thoughts and responses to objections made by anti-Islamic movements popular among educated people of Mashhad at the time from 1320s to 1350s Sh. (1940s to 1970s).
Milani started his political activities in Iraq when he was young. Milani attended the rise of Muslim Iraqi people against the presence of UK in their country, led by Shiite authorities, together with Mirza Mahdi, Akhund Khurasani's son, Shaykh Jawad Jawahiri, Shaykh Muhammad Hasan Najafi's son, Sayyid 'Ali Damad, and others.
Milani entered Mashhad after the Nationalization of the Iran Oil Industry Movement. Milani had close relations with the former organizers of this movement in Mashahd, and during the June 5, 1963 demonstrations in Qom, he was a pioneer of the cleric movement.
In Khurdad, 1346 (June, 1967), Milani published a statement regarding the 6-day war between Arab nations and Israel. In this statement, he sympathized with Muslim Arab people, and because of this, he was threatened by General Nasiri. In the same year, his passport was confiscated and he was ordered to leave Iran because he did not congratulate the Shah for his coronation, but the decision was not executed because of Milani's spiritual influence among people and his place among Shiite clergies and authorities.
Two days after the martyrdom of Ayatollah Sa'idi in Khurdad 24, 1349 Sh. (June 14, 1970), Milani shut down his lectures, and in Tir 24 of the same year (July 15, 1970), Muhammad al-Faham, the head of Al-Azhar University who had come to Iran from Cairo by the invitation of Dar al-Taqrib bayn al-Madhahib al-Islamiyya (House of Proximity among Islamic Sects), visited Ayatollah Milani.
- Muhadarat fi l-fiqh al-Imamiyya (lectures about the Imamiyya jurisprudence): this is a 10-volume collection investigating the rulings of Shiite fiqh, such as those concerning worships and transactions.
- Qadatuna kayfa na'rifuhum (Our leaders, how to know them?): this is a 9-volume collection concerning the biographies of the Fourteen Infallibles (a) and their virtues according to Shiite and Sunni sources.
- Tawdih al-masa'il (essay of fatwas)
- Risala fi l-ta'min wa l-yanasib (an essay concerning insurance and lotteries).
In 1370 /1951, Milani went to hajj. In 1359 A.H. (1940), he visited Syria and Lebanon where he met Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din, Sayyid Muhsin Amin, Shaykh Habib Al Ibrahim, Mirza Hasan Lawasani and Shaykh Muhammad Taqi Sadiq in the cities of Sur, Damascus, Baalbek, Ghaziya, and Nabatieh. He travelled to Iran six times. In his sixth travel, he visited Imam al-Rida (a)'s holy shrine on the Day of 'Arafa. In this travel, he went to the house of Shaykh 'Ali Akbar Nughani, and at the request of people and scholars of Khurasan, he stayed in Mashhad.
- The material for this article is mainly taken fromسید محمد هادی میلانی in Farsi Wikishia.