Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari

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Personal Information
Full Name Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari
Lineage Khwansari Family
Birth 1305/1888
Residence Khvansar,Najaf,Qom
Studied in Khvansar,Najaf,Qom
Death 1371/1952
Burial Place Holy shrine of Lady Ma'suma (a), Qom
Scholarly Information
Professors Muhammad Kazim Khurasani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi, Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani, Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi
Students Imam Khomeini,Sayyid Muhammad Muhaqqiq Yazdi,Murtada Ha'iri Yazdi,Shaykh Musa Zanjani,Ibrahim Khu'i
Permission for
Ijtihad From
Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi
Works Muntakhab al-ahkam,Dhakhirat al-'ibad, ...
Socio-Political Activities
Socio-Political
Activities
Fighting against Britain, supporting Fada'iyan-i Isalam,protesting against the law of Kashf-i Hijab

Sayyid Muḥammad Taqī Khwansārī (Persian: سیّد محمد تقی خوانساری) (b. 1305/1888 d. 1371/1952) was a Shi'a faqih (jurist) and Marja' of 14th/20th century. With the beginning of the World War I in 1332/1914 and engagement of Ottoman Empire in the war with Britain and occupation of some southern parts of Iraq, Khwansari and a group of the clergy students and scholars of Najaf went to fight against occupiers. He was injured during the fights and was exiled to IndoChina for 4 years. Then He went to Arak and then to Qom.

After the demise of Ayatollah Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri and before Ayatollah Burujirdi enters Qom, he was Marja'.

He took critical positions against the activities of Muhammad Rida Pahlavi's regime.

He is also famous for the event in which he led Salat al-Istisqa (prayer of asking for rain) as a imam in Qom and three days later it rained heavily after a prolonged drought.

Sayyid Muhammad Taqi Khwansari was the son in law of Ayatollah Araki.

Birth and Lineage

Muhammad Taqi was born in Khwansar, in a family that was famous for knowledge, merits and manners. His father was Sayyid Asd Allah Musavi Khwansari. According to some sources, he was a descendant of Imam al-Kazim (a).

Education

He completed the primarily studies in Khwansar. In 1322/1904 he went to Iraq to continue his studies. He studied fiqh and usul (jurisprudence and prinsiples of jurisprudence) under Muhammad Kazim Khurasani, Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi, Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani, Muhammad Husayn Na'ini and Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi. He received a certification of Ijtihad from Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi. He also learned Islamic philosophy under Shaykh Ali Quchani.

Fight against British Army

With the beginning of the World War I in 1332/1914 and engagement of Ottoman Empire in the war with Britain and occupation of some southern parts of Iraq, Khwansari and a group of the clergy students and scholars of Najaf started fighting against British occupiers. He was injured and captured by British forces. He was exiled to IndoChina -which was a part of British colonies- for 4 years.

In Qom

Returned from the exile, he went to his hometown. Then he moved to Arak at the request of Ayatollah Shaykh 'Abd al-Karim Ha'iri Yazdi for teaching in the seminary. In 1340/1922, he immigrated to Qom along with Ayatollah Ha'iri and helped him in the establishment of Hawza 'Ilmiyya of Qom (Islamic Seminary in Qom). He started teaching fiqh and usul. He participated in Ayatollah Ha'iri's class as well.

Marja'iyya

After the demise of Ayatollah Ha'iri, a group of scholars and people accepted him as a Marja'. He, Sayyid Muhammad Hujjat Kuhkamara'i and Sayyid Sadr al-Din al-Sadr were responsible for Seminary of Qom and its students affairs before the arrival of Ayatollah Husayn Burujirdi in Qom. Khwansari played an important role in consolidation of Marja'iyya of Ayatollah Burujirdi and his residence in Qom.

Students

He had numerous students. Some of which are:

Political Activities

Khwansari was a political activist. Some of his most important activities are: supporting Fada'iyan-i Isalam, supporting the Movement of Nationalising the Oil Industry of Iran, issuing fatwa on compulsion of participation in the 17th election of the National Consultative Assembly of Iran (Majlis Shurayi Milli-i Iran), protesting against the law of Kashf-i Hijab, and supporting Palestinians after the events in 1366-1367/1947-1948.

Characteristics

He was famous for his spirituality and good manners. The most important reason for this fame was his ascetic life and also the event of Salat al-Istisqa.

Salat al-Istisqa

While some central regions of Iran was occupied by the Allies during the World War II, in 1363/1944, people encountered an unprecedented drought and famine. Thus, in Ramadan (September), people of Qom asked him to be the Imam for performing Salat al-Istisqa. Accompanied by 20000 (twenty thousand) people, he went to desert, where they performed the prayer. They performed Salat al-Istisqa three days in row. On the third day, it rained heavily. It even shocked the Allies forces and was widely covered by the press. Moreover, the event was mentioned in some poems eulogizing him, composed after his demise.

Demise

Muhammad Taqi Khwansari passed away in 1371/1952 due to digestion and heart disease. He was buried in Balasar mosque in the Holy Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a), next to his teacher, Ayatollah Ha'iri Yazdi.

Children

Sayyid Muhammad Baqir and Sayyid Muhammad Ali -two of his children- were religious scholars.

Works

  • Glosses on 'Urwat al-Wuthqa -written by Al-Sayyid Muhammad Kazim al-Tabataba'i al-Yazdi- which was the outcome of his discussions with Muhammad Ali Araki. It was published along with other scholars glosses and once by Ayatollah Araki's name.
  • Muntakhab al-ahkam; his book of practical Islamic laws
  • Dhakhirat al-'ibad; an extended book on practical Islamic laws.
  • Glosses on Manasik al-Hajj, written by al-Shaykh al-Ansari
  • Mukhtasr al-Ahkam
  • Risalat taqwim al-Salat (treatise)
  • The transcript of his fiqh class (transcribed by Muhammad Ali Araki).

References