Al-Husayn b. Sa'id al-Ahwazi
|Al-Husayn b. Sa'id al-Ahwazi|
|Full Name||Al-Husayn b. Sa'id al-Ahwazi|
|Companion of||Imam al-Rida (a), Imam al-Jawad (a), and Imam al-Hadi (a)|
|Place of Birth||Kufa|
|Place(s) of Residence||Kufa, Ahwaz, Qom|
|Works||Al-Wudu, Al-Salat, Al-Zakat, ...|
Al-Ḥusayn b. Saʿīd al-Ahwāzī (Arabic: الحُسَين بن سَعيد الأهوازي), jurist and hadith scholar of the first half of the 3rd/9th century, who, together with his brother al-Hasan, composed important jurisprudential and hadith works. His name appears in more than five thousand Shi'i hadiths.
Birth and Genealogy
Husayn b. Sa'id was born in Kufa, but the year of his birth is not known. As to his father, the sources only mention that his epithet was Dandan, regarded by Abu Dawud al-Hilli as an unknown transmitter of hadith.
It is reported that his ancestors were from the mawali of Imam al-Sajjad (a). His two uncles, Ali b. Yahya b. al-Hasan and Ja'far b. Yahya b. Sa'd al-Ahwal, who were from companions of Imam al-Rida (a), and Imam al-Jawad (a) respectively, are regarded as trustworthy in Rijal sources.
Al-Husayn was a companion of Imam al-Rida (a), Imam al-Jawad (a), and Imam al-Hadi (a) and transmitted their hadiths directly. He transmitted the hadiths of the previous Imams (a) through Ibn Abi 'Umayr, Ali b. al-Nu'man, al-Hasan b. Mahbub, and Muhammad b. Sanan.
Among his prominent students and those who transmitted hadith from him are Ahmad b. Muhammad b. 'Isa al-Ash'ari (d. 280 AH/893-894), Ahmad b. Idris (d. 306/918-919), Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid al-Barqi (d. 280/893), and Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Dinawari (d. 282/895). Before his death, al-Husayn gave all his books to al-Husayn b. al-Hasan b. Aban, the son of his host in Qom, who transmitted all of al-Husayn's books.
From the Viewpoint of Shi'a Scholars
The Scholars of Rijal, such as al-Barqi and al-Tusi, regard al-Husayn as reliable. The fact that his name appears in more than five thousand chains of hadith transmitters indicates his high status in fiqh and hadith.
Jurists and biographers have also praised him; for instance, al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli counts him as a prominent faqih and Ibn al-Nadim regards al-Husayn and his brother as the most knowledgeable of their time with regard to Shi'a fiqh and literature.
Al-Najashi mentions the following books for al-Husayn b. Sa'id:
- Al-'Itq wa l-tadbir wa l-mukataba
- Al-Iman wa l-nudhur
- Al-Tijarat wa l-Ijarat
- Al-Sayd wa l-dhaba'ih
- Al-Radd 'ala l-ghulat
- Huquq al-mu'minin wa fadluhum
- Tafsir al-Qur'an
Moreover, a recent research has shown that a book called al-Nawadir —or at least, most of it— that has been published and attributed to Ahmad b. Muhammad b. 'Isa was in fact composed by al-Husayn b. Sa'id, because in the chains of transmission of the hadiths in this book, we see the names of people like Muhammad b. Fudayl, Nadr b. Suwayd, and Fadala b. Ayyub, who were not of the teachers of Ahmad b. Muhammad and the latter did not transmit any hadiths from them. They were only the teachers of al-Husayn b. Sa'id.
Most of al-Husayn's works are jurisprudential, but he also has two moral works which are available now: al-Mu'min and al-Zuhd. He also has a theological work entitled al-Radd 'ala l-ghulat and also an exegetical work. The titles of the chapters of al-Zuhd include the following:
- The virtue of silence and abstaining from the material world
- Good manners
- Toleration and anger
- Doing good to parents and family members
- Humbleness and pride
- Descriptions of Paradise and hell
Al-Zuhd was summarized by Ali b. Hatam al-Qazwini.
Moreover, a work entitled al-Bahar is also attributed to al-Husayn. Radi al-Din 'Ali b. Tawus had an old copy of it and cited it in his book al-Yaqin.
Al-Husayn b. Sa'id and his brother al-Hasan moved from Kufa to Ahwaz. Some time later, al-Husayn moved to Qom and resided there. His host in Qom was al-Hasan b. Aban al-Qummi. Al-Husayn passed away in Qom, but we don't know the exact year of his demise, though some have mentioned that he was alive up to 254/868.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from حسین بن سعید اهوازی in Farsi Wikishia.