Sayyid Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi
|Full Name||Sayyid Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi|
|Well-Known Relatives||Sayyid Ali Hashemi Shahroudi (father)|
|Place of Birth||Najaf|
|Residence||Najaf, Qom, Tehran|
|Death||December 24, 2018, Tehran|
|Burial Place||Qom, Holy Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma (a)|
|Professors||Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr, Imam Khomeini and Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei|
|Works||Buuhth fi ilm al-usul|
|A member of the fiqh council of Ayatullah Khamene'i|
|Head of the Judiciary, director of Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, A member and head of the Expediency Discernment Council of the System, A member and deputy chairman in the society of teachers in the seminary of Qom and so on.|
Sayyid Mahmoud Hāshemī Shāhroudī (Persian: سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی), (b. 1948 - d. 2018) is an Iranian jurist, a politician and a Shi'a religious authority. He was born in Najaf. In his youth, he followed intellectual principles and practical conduct of his teacher al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and began his activities in the seminary of Najaf and fought against Saddam's regime.
After the Islamic Revolution in Iran and due to the pressures of Saddam's regime, he followed the advice of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and returned to his original homeland. At that time, he founded the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq and at the same time, continued teaching and research in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence.
Some of his most important responsibilities he has had in the Islamic Republic of Iran have been being a member of the Guardian Council of the Constitution, a member and deputy chairman in the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership, head of the Judiciary, head of the Supreme Committee for Dispute Resolution and Alignment of the Relations between the three Powers, a member and head of the Expediency Discernment Council of the System. After months of battling with illness, he eventually passed away on December 24, 2018 at the age of 70.
Life and Education
Sayyid Mahmoud Hashemi Shahroudi, son of Sayyid Ali Hashemi Shahroudi, was born in 1948 in Najaf, Iraq. He began his primary educations in Alawi school in Najaf and then entered the seminary and learned basic lessons of Seminary, mostly in private classes. Afterwards, he participated in the class of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and learned the principles of Ijtihad. He also participated in the classes of Imam Khomeini and Sayyid Abu l-Qasim al-Khoei for a short while. After months of suffering from illness, he passed away on December 24, 2018 at the age of 70.
When Hashemi Shahroudi entered Iran in April 1979, Imam Khomeini asked him to begin teaching at the seminary of Qom. Since then, his advanced classes in fiqh and usul have been held. His most important books are:
- Buhuth fi ilm al-usul (the lecture notes of al-Sayyid Muammad Baqir al-Sadr's lectures on usul in seven volumes)
- Kitab al-khums (two volumes)
- Maqalat fiqhiyya
- Qa'idat al-faraq wa l-tajawuz (the Rule of Completion and Passing)
- Tafsir aya-yi mawaddat-i dhi l-Qurba (the exegesis of Love of Relatives' verse)
- Buhuth fi l-ilm al-zira'i
- Muhadarat fi l-thawra al-Husayniyya
- Al-tarbiya wa l-hidaya
- Kitab al-ijara (two volumes)
- Kitab al-zakat (four volumes)
- Kitab al-mudaraba
- Qara'at fiqhiyya mu'asara (two volumes)
- Manasik al-hajj (in Farsi and Arabic)
- Masa'il wa rudud
- Kitab al-hajj
- Azwa' wa ara' (three volumes)
- Risala tawzih al-masa'i (manual of fatwas)
He has been one of the members of the fiqh council of Ayatullah Khamene'i for years. He has also been the chairman of the two congresses of the Role of Time and Place in the Thoughts of Imam Khomeini and the First Congress of Islamic Fiqh Encyclopedia. He is currently the head of the Institute for the Encyclopedia of Islamic Fiqh, appointed by Ayatullah Khamene'i and has published several articles in the Quarterly of Fiqh of the Ahl al-Bayt (a). Foundation of the University of Justice is among his educational and scientific activities.
During the years of his education and teaching in Najaf, Hashemi Shahroudi followed the thought model of his teacher al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and engaged in political activities. Following the attacks of the agents of Saddam to Shi'a scholars in 1974, he was imprisoned and tortured. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, he organized demonstrations in different cities of Iraq, especially in Najaf to commemorate that victory and was prosecuted by the Baath regime of Iraq. He went to Iran following the advice of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr to be in contact with Imam Khomeini as the representative of al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr. After he went to Iran, followed the suggestion of Ayatollah Khamene'i who managed the Islamic movements at that time to establish the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq along with some political activists and scholars, especially al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Hakim. Hashemi Shahroudi was the spokesman of the Council for a while.
After being appointed as the head of the Expediency Discernment Council of the System, he had a journey to Iraq and met up with politicians of that country.
In addition to being the director and spokesman of the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq, Hashemi Shahroudi had some high responsibilities in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the most important ones of which have been:
- A member of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) World Assembly
- A member of The World Forum for Proximity of Islamic Schools of Thought
- The head and founder of the Institute for the Encyclopedia of Islamic Fiqh
- A member and deputy chairman in the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership,
- A member and deputy chairman in the society of teachers in the seminary of Qom
- A faqih member of the Guardian Council
- Head of the Judiciary
- Head of the Supreme Committee for Dispute Resolution and Alignment of the Relations between the three Powers
- A member and head of the Expediency Discernment Council of the System
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سید محمود هاشمی شاهرودی in Farsi WikiShia.