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Ahmad b. Muhammad Ardabili

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Mugaddas-ardabili.jpg
A commemorative stamp of Muqaddas Ardabili issued by Iran's Post Company in 1417/1996
Personal Information
Full Name Ahmad b. Muhammad Ardabili
Well-Known As Muqaddas Ardabili, Muhaqqiq Ardabili
Birth Unknown
Residence Ardabil
Studied in Najaf, Shiraz
Death 993/1585
Burial Place The Holy Shrine of Imam Ali (a)
Scholarly Information
Professors Sayyid Ali Sa'igh, Jamal al-Din Mahmud etc.
Students Mirza Muhammad Astarabadi, Sayyid Muhammad 'Amili etc.
Works Zubdat al-bayan fi barahin ahkam al-Qur'an, Majma' al-fa'idat wa al-burhan fi sharh al-Adhhan etc.
Socio-Political Activities
Socio-Political
Activities
He always wrote letters to the Safavid court and reminded Shahs to resolve problems of Shi'a

Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Ardabīlī (Persian: احمد بن محمد اردبیلی) (b. ? -d. 993/1585), also known as al-Muqaddas al-Ardabīlī (Perisna: مقدس اردبیلی) and al-Muḥaqqiq al-Ardabīlī (Persian: محقق اردبیلی), was a Shi'a jurist of 10th /16th century. He was contemporaneous with Baha' al-Din al-'Amili. He gained his fame from his ascesis and piety. Many scholars praised him.

He was an expert in intellectual and narrative sciences. He helped the Seminary of Najaf to be more thriving when he was its manager. One of his most important works is Zubdat al-bayan fi ayat al-ahkam. At the last stages of his life, he renounced teaching intellectual subjects and dedicated himself to teaching narrative subjects.

He was connected to Safavid court and he seized this opportunity to spread Shi'a and resolve Shi'as problems. Finally, he passed away in 993/1585 in Najaf and was buried in the Holy Shrine of Imam Ali (a).

Life and Education

Ahmad Ardabili was born in Ardabil in 10th/16th century. He moved to Najaf to continue his education. He was contemporaneous with Baha' al-Din al-'Amili and Shah 'Abbas I. He learned intellectual sciences and fiqh (jurisprudence) under Sayyid Ali Sa'igh and other teachers in the seminary of Najaf. Afterward, he emigrated to Shiraz and studied intellectual sciences under Jamal al-Din Mahmud, the student of Jalal al-Din Dawani. At the last years of his life in Najaf, he renounced teaching intellectual subjects and taught narrative sciences to the end of his life. He helped the seminary of Najaf to be more thriving when he was its manager. He was titled as "Muhaqqiq" (researcher) due to his expertise in researching and his profound knowledge. Ardabili was the first jurist after al-Shaykh al-Tusi period who expanded relying on Khabar-i Wahid by paying attention to reliable hadiths form non-Imami narrators.

Moral Characteristics

He was so pious and ascetic that he was known as "Muqaddas" (saint). Some acts of wonder have been reported from him. He was so humble among his students. His students have narrated stories about his humbleness and help to the needy.

Connection with Safavid Court

He had connections with Safavid court and he seized this opportunity to spread Shi'a and resolve Shi'as problems. Although, he refused to emigrate to Iran after Shah 'Abbas Safavi asked him to leave Najaf, he always wrote letters to the court and reminded them to resolve problems of Shi'as.

Words of Other Scholars about Him

Scholars and jurists have praised and admired him greatly. Scholars such as: Shaykh Hurr al-'Amili, 'Allama Majlisi, Shaykh 'Abbas Qumi and Sayyid Mustafa Tafrishi have praised him with various titles and expressions. Mulla Muhammad Hasan Najafi known as Sahib Jawahir, Mulla Ahmad Naraqi known as Sahib Mustand al-Shi'a and Yusuf b. Ahmad al-Bahrani known as Muhaddith Bahrani in his book "al-Hada'iq al-nadira" have referred to him by his greatness.

Students

Some of his students are:

  1. Mirza Muhammad Astarabadi.
  2. Sayyid Muhammad 'Amili (d. 1009/1600); the author of Madarik al-ahkam wa nihayat al-maram.
  3. Shaykh Hasan 'Amili (d. 1011/1602); the son of Shahid Thani and the author of Ma'alim al-din.
  4. Mir Fayd Allah Tafrishi.
  5. Mulla 'Abd Allah Shushtari.
  6. 'Inayat Allah Kuhpayi'i.

Works

Ardabili has authored scholarly works in fiqh, usul, theology and Ahl al-Bayt's life. Some of which are:

  1. Zubdat al-bayan fi barahin ahkam al-Qur'an; which is about Ayat al-Ahkam.
  2. Majma' al-fa'idat wa al-burhan fi sharh al-Adhhan; one of the most famous encyclopedias in inferential jurisprudence. This book is considered as a commentary on Irshad al-adhhan written by 'Allama Hilli.
  3. Glosses on Sharh Tajrid Qushchi; He discussed the Imamate issues and disproved some demonstrations given by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi against Shi'a beliefs about Imamate.
  4. Istinas al-ma'nawiyya.
  5. Bahr al-manaqib.
  6. Glosses on Qawa'id al-ahkam written by 'Allama Hilli.
  7. Glosses on Tadhkira written by 'Allama Hilli.
  8. Glosses on Sharh Mukhtasar 'Adudi.
  9. A Persian treatise on Imamate.
  10. Risala fi kawn af'al Allah mu'alallat bi l-aghrad.

Demise

Finally, he passed away in 993/1585 and was buried in the Holy Shrine of Imam Ali (a).

References