Sayyid 'Ali Husayni Khamenei

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Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei
Personal Information
Full name Sayyid 'Ali Husayni Khamenei
Nickname Ayatollah Khamenei
Birth April 19, 1939 in Mashhad, Iran
Home town Mashhad, Iran
Scholarly Information
Professors Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani, Ayatollah Burujirdi, Imam Khomeini
Socio-political activities
Socio-political
activities
The Supreme leader of Islamic Republic of Iran
Official website Khemenei.ir

Sayyid ʿAli Ḥusaynī Khāminiʼī (Farsi: "سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای") (b. 1939) also known as "Ayatollah Khamenei", is among Shi'a Marja's and the second leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Before being elected as the leader in 1989, he was president for two terms and a member of parliament for a short period. He was also chosen as the Friday Prayer leader of Tehran by Imam Khomeini. Before the Islamic Revolution of Iran, he was among active clerics in Mashhad.

Ayatollah Khamenei's thoughts have been compiled in a comprehensive work called Hadith-i wilayat. Several other books have also been compiled and published about his speeches and written messages in different topics. Moreover, some other written works, authored or translated by him have been published, most comprehensive one authored by him is Tarh-i kulli-yi andishi-yi Islami dar Qur'an. And Solh-i Imam al-Hasan (a) is his most famous translation.

His fatwa against insulting Sunnis' respected personalities is among his most famous and effective fatwas in the Islamic world. The concepts of "Tahajum-i farhangi" (cultural invasion) and "Bidari-yi Islami" (Islamic awakening) are among the concepts that entered Iranian political and social literature following his speeches and emphasis.

Ayatollah Khamenei is knowledgeable in literature and has also composed some poems and his pen name is "Amin". Contemporary history is another field of his studies and interest areas.[1]

His Birth and Lineage

Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei beside his father
Ayatollah Khamenei sitting next to his father, Ayatollah Sayyid Jawad Khamenei in their house in Mashhad, Iran.

Sayyid 'Ali was born on April 19, 1939 to a religious family in Mashhad. His father, Sayyid Javad Khamenei (d. 1986) was among mujtahids and scholars of his time. He was born in Najaf and moved to Tabriz and later in 1918 moved again to Mashhad. After a while, he went back to Najaf and after completing his studies with great scholars such as Mirza Muhammad Hasan Na'ini, Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani and Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi and receiving his permission of Ijtihad,[2] returned to Iran and settled in Mashhad to the end of his life. He was the prayer leader of Seddiqi-ha mosque in Bazaar of Mashahd (Azerbaijaniha Mosque) while he taught different seminary topics.[3] He was also among prayer leaders of the Grand Goharshad Mosque.[4]

Khadija Mirdamadi (1914–1989), mother of Ayatollah Khamenei was a pious and zealot follower of the religion. She was knowledgeable in the Qur'an, hadiths, history and literature.

His Forefathers

His great grandfather was Sayyid Muhammad Husayni Tafrishi whose lineage reached back to Aftasi Sayyids and his family tree reached Sultan al-'Ulama Ahmad, known as "Sultan Sayyid Ahmad" who was about 5 generations after Imam al-Sajjad (a).

The grandfather of Sayyid Ali Khamenei, Sayyid Husayn Khamenei (about 1843–1907) was among pro-constitution scholars and student of scholars such as Sayyid Husayn Kuh Kamari'i, al-Fadil al-Irawani, Fadil Sharabiyani, Mirza Baqir Shakki and Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi.[5] After his return from Najaf to Tabriz, he became a teacher at Talibiyya Madrasa and the prayer leader of the grand mosque of Tabriz.[6]

Shaykh Muhammad Khiyabani, the combatant cleric of Mashruta was a student and the son-in-law of Sayyid Husayn Khamenei.[7]

Sayyid Muhammad Khamenei (1876–1934) known as "Payghambar"[8] was the uncle of Ayatollah Khamenei and a student of al-Akhund al-Khurasani and Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani and among pro-constitution scholars.[9]

Ayatollah Sayyid Hashim Najafabadi (known as Mirdamadi) (1886–1961), the grandfather of Ayatollah Khamenei's mother (from Mirdamad Family, the famous philosopher of Safavid period) was among students of al-Akhund al-Khurasani and Mirza Muhammd Husayn Na'ini. He was among the Qur'an scholars and exegetes and one of the prayer leaders of Goharshad mosque.[10] He also made great efforts in enjoining to the good and forbidding evil and was exiled to Semnan following his criticism of killing people in Goharshad mosque at the time of Reza Shah.[11] Ayatollah Khamenei's lineage from the side of his mother reached Muhammad al-Dibaj, son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a).[12]

Scientific Biography

This is a photo to Sayyid Ali Khamenei, the leader of Islamic Republic of Iran in his early youth when he had just entered al-Hawza al-'Ilmiyya. It's written on the back of this image some sentences which indicates that it had been given as a gift to Sayyid Hadi Khosroshahi.

Education

Sayyid Ali began studying in Maktabkhani by learning the Glorious Qur'an since he was 4 years old.[13] At the same time, he began learning recitation and Tajwid of the Qur'an under some reciters of Mashhad. He began primary Hawza studies when he was at last years of the primary school. After he finished primary school, he continued his religious studies in Solayman Khan Madrasa. He finished the stage of "Sath" in Navvab Madrasa. He studied a part of "Muqaddamat" (primary courses of Hawza studies) and Sath with his father. He continued his studies up to the second year of high school at the same time with his studies at Hawza.[14]

In 1964, he attended Dars-i Kharij (the highest-level courses of Hawza) of Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani. In 1966, he had a short trip to Najaf with his family and participated in the lessons of famous teachers of there; however, due to his father's disinclination for staying in that city, returned to Mashhad[15] and attended for one more year in the class of Ayatollah Milani and in 1967, he went to the Hawza of Qom.[16]

Ayatollah Khamenei returned to Mashhad in 1964 to help his father who suffered eyesight problem and attended again in the sessions of Ayatollah Milani until 1970.

Teaching

Since the time he was in Mashhad, he taught Fiqh and Usul (including the books Rasa'il, Makasib, and Kifaya) at high levels and held public sessions of tafsir of the Qur'an. Since 1968, he began teaching a special course of tafsir of the Qur’an for religious students which continued until 1977 before he was exiled to Iranshahr. Tafsir sessions continued in some years of his presidency in Iranshahr and after that. After he became the president of Iran, he began his Kharij classes in 1990 and has been teaching lessons of Jihad, Qisas and al-Makasib al-Muharrama so far.

Teachers

Young Sayyid Ali Khamenei.jpg

Ayatollah Khamenei has been student of many great scholars of Hawza, some of which are as follows:

Scientific Works

Ayatollah Khamene'i began research and writing since he was a seminary student as he wrote his teachers' class scripts.[18] His thoughts have been compiled in a comprehensive work under the title of Hadith-i Wilayat. Different books have also been compiled and published containing his talks and written messages. Moreover, some other works of him and some translations have been published.

‌Books

  1. The Four major books of Rijal
  2. Tarh-i kulli-yi andishi-yi Islami
  3. Pishwa-yi Sadiq
  4. Az zharfa-yi namaz
  5. Sabr
  6. Ruh-i Tawhid, nafi-yi 'ubudiyyat-i ghayr-i Khuda
  7. Guzarish-i az sabiqi-yi tarikhi wa awza'-i kununi-yi Hawzi-yi 'Ilmiyyi-yi Mashhad

Translations

  1. Ayandi dar qalamru-yi Islam, written by Sayyid Qutb
  2. Sulh-i Imam al-Hasan (a); Pur shukuh-tarin narmish-i qahramanani-yi tarikh, written by Shaykh Radi Al Yasin
  3. Tafsir fi zilal al-Qur'an, written by Sayyid Qutb
  4. Musalmanan dar nahdat-i azadi-yi Hindustan, written by 'Abd al-Mun'im al-Nimr
  5. Eddi'anami 'alayh-i tamaddun-i gharb, written by Sayyid Qutb

His Socio-political Activities

Sayyid Ali Khamenei Arrested by Savak.JPG

The turning point for Sayyid 'Ali which led to beginning of his political activities and fighting Pahlavi regime was meeting with Sayyid Mujtaba Navvab Safavi (Mirlowhi) in Mashhad. In February 1963[19] and also in 1964, he was the messenger between Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Milani.[20]

In a trip to Birjand, he made a speech against the regime and thus was arrested on June 2,[21] 1963 and was prisoned in Mashhad.[22] After he was released, Ayatollah Muhammad Hadi Milani visited him.[23] He was among the clerics who sent a telegram to Ayatollah Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani, Mahdi Bazargan and Yadullah Sahabi on January 1, 1964.[24]

At the same time, having him as their leader, some clerics from Khorasan wrote a letter to Hasan Ali Mansur, the prime minister of the time, and published it, in which they objected to the continuation of Imam Khomeini's arrest. Ayatollah Khamenei, Abu l-Qasim Khaz'ali and Muhammad 'Aba'i Khurasani were among those clerics.[25]

In February 1964, Ayatollah Khamenei went to Zahedan for preaching and explaining the theories behind the Islamic Movement.[26] His speeches in the mosques of Zahedan led to his arrest and moving him to the prison of Qizil Qal'i.[27] He was released from the prison on March 4, 1964.[28] And later, he returned to Qom from Mashhad in the Fall of 1964.[29]

A letter from local Shahrbani to the Governor-General of Khorasan, reporting about the arrest of Ayatollah Khamenei, due to his political activities against the regime and promoting the ideas of Imam Khomeini.

He was with 10 other people including 'Abd al-Rahim Rabbani Shirazi, Muhammad Husayni Bihishti, 'Ali Fayd Mishkini, Ahmad Adhari Qumi, 'Ali Quddusi, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Sayyid Muhammad Khamenei and Muhammad Taqi Mesbah Yazdi to make a group of 11 formed to fight the Pahlavi regime by strengthening and reforming the Hawza of Qom.[30]

He was also the leader of congregational prayer at Amir al-Mu'minin Mosque in Tehran. Following the arrest of Ayatollah Sayyid Hasan Qomi in March 1967 which happened after his anti-regime speech in Goharshad Mosque, Ayatollah Khamenei asked Ayatollah Milani to object to his arrest.[31]

On April 3, Ayatollah Khamenei was arrested in the funeral of Ayatollah [[Shaykh Mujtaba Qazwini[32] and was released on July 17.[33] He went to visit political prisoners in Tehran later.[34]

After the destructive earthquake of the south of Khorasan on August 31, 1968, some clergies led by Ayatollah Khamenei went to Ferdos in order to help and organize people's aids to earthquake-stricken people. While he was there, he continued his political activities in meetings, lectures and religious gatherings. Such activities made his stay in Ferdos cut short.[35]

Even though he was prosecuted, he was in contact with some combatant clerics in Mashhad and Tehran such as Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani, Sayyid Muhammad Rida Sa'idi, Muhammad Jawad Bahunar, Muhammad Rida Mahdawi Kani, Murtada Mutahhari, Akbar Hashimi Rafsanjani and Fadl Allah Mahallati and even though he was in Mashhad, he came to Tehran and participated in some of the gatherings of scholars and combatant clergies.[36]

In August 1969, he was invited to make some speeches in some politically active Islamic centers of Tehran including Husayniyyi-yi Irshad and Masjid al-Jawad in order to promote the movement.[37]

Sayyid Ali Khamenei in attire of Sunnis when he was exiled to Sistan and Baluchestan Province in Iran.

After Ayatollah al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim passed away in May 1970, Ayatollah Khamenei made a greater effort to reinforce the religious authority of Imam Khomeini as the most knowledgeable religious authority. On September 24, 1970, he was arrested and was held in army prison of Khorasan. In August 1971, he was summoned to SAVAK of Mashhad and sent to the army prison of Khorasan again so that he would not have any activities against the 2500 year celebrations.[38] These celebrations were banned by Imam Khomeini.[39] After he was released, he was arrested two more times in the same year and in the second time, he was sentenced to 3 months prison with the charge of acting against the national security.[40]

After he was released, Sayyid Ali Khamenei expanded his political and social activities. His classes and Tafsir continued in Mirza Ja'far Madrasa, Imam Hasan Mosque, Qibla Mosque and his own house in Mashhad.

n December 1973, he moved the place of his congregational prayer and Tafsir class to Karamat Mosque.[41] After a while, security organizations stopped holding congregational prayer in that mosque.[42]

In November 1974, he began making speeches in Jawid Mosque of Tehran. He was again arrested in January 1975, but this time he was moved to the prison of the Joint Committee of Anti-Sabotage in Tehran.[43] In this prison, he had no opportunity of having any visit and the place and situation of his prison was not informed to his family.[44]

He was released on August 24, 1975, but he was still under surveillance of security agents and he was banned from leading congregational prayer, making speeches, teaching and holding Tafsir courses even in his own house;[45] however, he continued his Tafsir and other activities in private.[46]

After Ali Shari'ati passed away on June 19, 1977, Ayatollah Khamenei attended in his funeral. After Ayatollah Sayyid Mustafa Khomeini passed away, Ayatollah Khamenei and some other combatants held a memorial ceremony for him in Mulla Hashim Mosque on October 28.[47]

He then was sentenced by the Social Security Commission of Khorasan to exile to Iranshahr for 3 years.[48] So, agents rushed to his house on December 14, 1977 and arrested and moved him to Iranshahr.

After the Islamic Revolution of Iran

His Membership in The Council of the Islamic Revolution

After Imam Khomeini immigrated to France, he ordered the formation of The Council of the Islamic Revolution in late October 1978 and its members were being gradually chosen by him.[49] The first members of the council were Mortaza Motahhari, Sayyid Mohammad Beheshti, Sayyid 'Abd al-Karim Musawi Ardabili, Muhammad Rida Mahdawi Kani, Sayyid Ali Khamenei, Muhammad Jawad Bahunar and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.

Ayatollah Khamenei attended in the sessions of the council in late January 1979.[50] At that time, the council made very important decisions about fighting with the regime including negotiation with the officials of Pahlavi government and foreign countries, forming the committee of welcoming Imam Khomeini[51] and introducing Mahdi Bazargan to Imam Khomeini as the president of the temporary government.[52]

After the Islamic Revolution, the Council was in charge of legislation in the absence of an official legislature, performing some of the duties of the cabinet after merging of the transitional government with the Council of Revolution in July 1979 and performing all duties of the government after the transitional government resigned on November 5, 1979. Beside all these duties, it was an authority for solving the problems and crises ahead of the newly born Islamic Republic and also a counseling body for Imam Khomeini.[53] Ayatollah Khamenei was a permanent member of this council until the end of its activity on July 20, 1980.[54]

He believed that the Council of the Revolution needed to be composed of different representatives from various groups and parts of the society.

The problems of Kurdistan, Sistan and Baluchistan and other parts of the country and maintaining the unity of people, were among other important issues Ayatollah Khamenei focused on in the council.

His Participation in Military and Defense Organizations

The photo shows Ayatollah Khamenei in a military exercise on August 6, 1987 in Persian Gulf, when he was the president of Islamic Republic of Iran.

In late July 1979, Ayatollah Khamenei was chosen as the Deputy of Revolution Affairs in the Defense Ministry and also a member of the Commission of Security Ministers who was in charge of all police, military and security affairs.[55] Beside all his missions assigned by the Council of the Revolution, he also became the head of the Center for Documents of Islamic Revolution and the Chief of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution on November 24, 1979. On February 24, 1980, he resigned from this position due to his candidacy for the first period of the parliament.[56]

Establishment of the Islamic Republic Party

During the days leading to the success of the Islamic Revolution and after that,[57] Ayatollah Khamenei worked together with Sayyid Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Sayyid Abd al-Karim Musavi Ardabili and Mohammad Javad Bahonar for the establishment of a revolutionary institution.[58] This institution officially announced its existence on February 18, 1979, but its background dated back to sessions held in Mashhad in the summer of 1977.[59]

Ayatollah Khamenei was among the ones who compiled the manifesto of the party and took the task of the party propagation.[60] He was a founding member and a member of the central council and did more for the party during the time of its establishment and presented party positions in the form of pamphlets. He also played a role in the establishment of the branch of the party in Mashhad and opened its office on March 17, 1979.

After Beheshti and Bahonar, Ayatollah Khamenei was chosen by the central council of the party as its third general director.[61] In the first general congress of the party in May 1983, he was chosen as the general director of the party, a member of the central council[62] and the judgment council of the party.[63]

During his presidency, he participated in the sessions of the party in Tehran and other cities and while he explained the missions and goals of the party, he also answered questions of the members of offices and branches of the party.[64]

Leader of Friday Prayer of Tehran

On January 14, 1980, Imam Khomeini appointed Ayatollah Khamenei as the leader of Friday prayer of Tehran, pointing to his good background and merits in knowledge and action.[65] He led the first Friday prayer on January 18, 1980. From this time until June 27, 1981, when he was attacked in Abudhar Mosque in Tehran and he was seriously injured, he led the Friday Prayer of Tehran except for a few days. He had this responsibility thereafter as well.

Holding a seminar for the leaders of Friday Prayer around Iran in order to make an integrated network of these leaders in the country and around the Islamic World was his idea and the first seminar was held in Faydiyya Madrasa in Qom, after the approval of Imam Khomeini.

He also sometimes made Arabics sermons after the second Persian sermon of Friday Prayer.

His Membership of the Parliament

Sayyid Ali Khamenei after being hospitalized due to his in injury in the terrorist attack on Tir 7 in the office of Islamic Republic Party in Tehran.

Ayatollah Khamenei entered the first round of the parliament in March 1980 elected by the votes of Tehran, with the support of the Jami'i-yi Ruhaniyyat-i Mubariz, the Islamic Republic Party and some other Islamic organizations and groups.

In October 1981, Ayatollah Khamenei became the president and left the parliament.

His Injury due to a Terrorist Attack

Ayatollah Khamenei was severely injured on June 27, 1981, after the blast of a bomb installed in an audio recorder while he was speaking after Noon Prayer in Abudhar Mosque in one of the southern neighborhoods of Tehran. After this terrorist attack, he received severe injury on his chest and his right hand, the effects of which still can be seen on his right hand which is not very functional. Non-official reports regarded the Mujahidin-i-Khalq Organization as the organizers of the attack.

Imam Khomeini sent a message to Ayatollah Khamenei and condemned the attack on him and praised him.[66] Ayatollah Khamenei was released from the hospital on August 9, 1981 and continued his social and political duties and attended the parliament sessions again from August 17.

His Presidency

Sayyid Ali Khamenei after being elected as the president of the Islamic Republic of Iran on October 5, 1981

The First Term

After the martyrdom of Muhammad 'Ali Raja'i, the second president of Islamic Republic of Iran, the central council of Islamic Republic Party and also the Society of the Teachers of the Seminary of Qom chose Ayatollah Khamenei as the candidate of presidency and Imam Khomeini who had not agreed with presidency of clerics in Iran, approved Ayatollah Khamanei's candidacy. The election was held on October 2, 1981 and Ayatollah Khamenei achieved the absolute majority of votes (95.11%) and became the president. On October 9, 1981, Imam Khomeini approved his presidential decree and on October 13, he pledged the oath in the parliament as the third president of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

A commercial poster for Sayyid Ali Khamenei, the candidate of presidency. Source: Khamenei.ir

The Second Term

The fourth round of presidential election of the Islamic Republic of Iran was held on August 16, 1985 and Ayatollah Khamenei received 12,205,012 votes (%85) from the total number of 14,238,587 votes and became the president of Ian for the second time. He was chosen as the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran in June 1989 and had the both responsibilities until August 1989.

In this term, to solve disagreements between the parliament and the Guardian Council for different bills, Imam Khomeini approved the establishment of the Expediency Discernment Council and Ayatollah Khamenei became its first chairman and had that responsibility until the end of his presidency.

His Foreign Trips

Sayyid Ali Khamenei and Sayyid Hasan Nasr Allah.jpg

In his first presidential term, he traveled to Syria, Lybia and Algeria from September 6 to September 11, 1984 and in his second term he traveled to Asian and African countries, for example Pakistan, Zimbabwe, Angola and Mozambique from January 13 to 23, 1986. He also traveled to Zimbabwe from September 2 to 6, 1986 in order to participate in the 8th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Harare (capital of Zimbabwe). In this trip, he made a speech in the summit and met and spoke with some of the leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement. He also traveled to Yugoslavia and Romania from February 21 to 25, 1989 and to China and North Korea from May 9 to 16, 1989.

On September 22, 1987, Ayatollah Khamenei participated in 42nd Session of the United Nations General Assembly and in his speech, he explained Iran's opinions and positions for the heads of world governments. This was the first presence of the president of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the United Nations General Assembly.

Supporting Muslim Fighters

Among other actions of Ayatollah Khamenei in foreign diplomacy was to establish strong relationships with political Shi'a groups in Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon and making mutual understanding between them. Establishment of Islamic Unity Party, one of the eight parties of Afghanistan and the Supreme Parliament of the Islamic Revolution of Iraq are important examples of such approach.

In this period, Iranian supports of Islamic combatants of Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq and Afghanistan were expanded and such supports of Islamic parties and groups in those countries brought them regional and international position.

The Time of His Leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Ayatollah Khamenei at his first speech in the meeting with the commanders of both the Military of Iran and the Army of the Guardians after the demise of Imam Khomeini.

After the demise of Imam Khomeini on June 4, 1989, the Assembly of Experts for Leadership held a session in the afternoon of the same day and after discussing about the leadership being by a council or by an individual and after mentioning Ayatollah Khamenei, some members of the Assembly mentioned Imam Khomeini's opinion about the competence of Ayatollah Khamenei for leadership of the country. Then, there was an election and the absolute number of the members of the Assembly chose Ayatollah Khamenei as the leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

After revision of the constitution and the referendum, the Assembly of the Experts for Leadership held a session once again based on the new constitution and conducted an opinion poll about his leadership and the absolute number of them chose him again as the leader of the country.

Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini, the son and the closest person to Imam Khomeini quoted from Imam Khomeini saying, "Indeed he (Ayatollah Khamenei) is competent for leadership." Zahra Mostafavi, daughter of Imam Khomeini quoted from him, mentioning Ayatollah Khamenei for the leadership and approving his Ijtihad. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani who is also among influential politicians in Iran quoted from Imam Khomeini mentioning Ayatollah Khamenei for the future leadership of the country. He also said that in a private meeting with him, Imam Khomeini mentioned Ayatollah Khamenei and said, "you will not be in dead end! Since, such a person is among you."

After Ayatollah Khamenei was chosen as the leader, high ranking officials of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the household of Imam Khomeini, religious authorities and scholars, elites, great personalities from Hawza and universities, families of the martyrs and different groups of people approved him or swore allegiance to him.

A few hours after Ayatollah Khamenei was chosen as the leader, Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini sent a message of congratulations to him and regarded the orders of al-Wali al-Faqih incumbent upon himself.

Then, people's allegiance in demonstrations, participation in rallies, declarations, congratulations and signing scrolls were made. Caravans of allegiance with the new leadership ran on the verge of the 40th day after demise of Imam Khomeini to visit Ayatollah Khamenei from different parts of the country and maneuvers of allegiance with the leadership were made in some borderlines and strategic regions of the country and seminars for promising Imam Khomeini, and showing allegiance with the new leadership were held.

His Religious Authority

The Farsi translation of Ajwibat al-Istifta'at which is written originally in Arabic, contains the answers of Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei to the questions of Shi'a from around the world regarding their religious rulings.

In 1994, after demise of Ayatollah Muhammad Ali Araki, (the Assembly of Teachers of the Seminary of Qom) and the Community of Combatant Clerics of Tehran introduced Ayatollah Khamenei as a competent faqih for being a Marja'. In a speech, Ayatollah Khamenei emphasized that there is no need to his religious authority in Iran and he accepts only the request of Shi'as who live outside Iran, but if there would be someone to do take this responsibility, he will withdraw from this one as well.

The first book of rulings published his opinions was Ajwibat al-Istifta'at which contained his answers to Shi'a questions regarding rulings.

His Opinions

Ayatollah Khamenei has the idea of Islamic proximity and believes that victory among the Muslim would happen as a result of their unity and decreasing their disagreements. Based on such an idea, he founded the International Assembly for the Proximity among the Islamic schools of thought and has tried to gather influential personalities of the Muslim world in different ways.

In 2009, he stressed on proximity among Islamic schools in his trip to Kurdistan and in his speech among believers in different Islamic schools, he criticized the critics of unity.

His Criticism of Tatbir and some Acts in Mourning Ceremonies

In June 1994, while he was speaking for a group of clerics, he seriously criticized some ways of mourning especially Qamizani and regarded it as Bid'a (illegitimate innovation in religion). Also in 1997, he was making speech in Mashhad and considered preaching of Qamizani by communist regimes as a support for his idea and a sign for deviant nature of this act.

Inheritance of a Wife from all the Property of Her Deceased Husband

In July 2007, in a meeting with a group of women, Ayatollah Khamenei mentioned his opinion about the inheritance of a wife from immovable property of her deceased husband and said he believes that a woman inherits from cash value of her deceased husband's immovable property. This opinion is contradictory with many jurists' opinion that a woman only inherits from movable property of her deceased husband.

His Idea of Cultural Invasion

In early years of 1990s, Ayatollah Khamene’i used expressions such as "cultural invasion" and "Cultural raid" and tried to direct the attention of scholars of cultural domains to cultural changes happening in the society. In his opinion, cultural invasion is against cultural exchange; and it is a deliberate attack by colonist powers to destroy the cultures of other nations and expanding their domination over them.

Prohibition of Insulting the Holy Names of Sunni Schools

Ayatollah Khamenei regards it prohibited to insult the holy names of non-Shia people. Also, he himself does not attack holy issues of others. In the year after Yassir al-Habib spoke against A'isha, wife of the Prophet (s), Ayatollah Khamenei declared insulting the holy names and great people of other Islamic schools including the wives of all the prophets as prohibited.

Islamic Awakening

After revolutionary movements and riots happened against some Arabic governments in Tunisia, Egypt, Bahrain, Libya and Yemen which led to the fall of some of the rulers of these countries, Ayatollah Khamenei called such movements as Islamic Awakening which were called by Arabic media as "Arabic spring".

Established Organizations

In order to achieve his religious goals and also making reforms in different intellectual and cultural fields, Ayatollah Khamenei established some organizations which are mostly cultural including the organizations listed below:

His International Activities

His Message to the Youths of the West

After a terrorist attack by some radical Muslim groups in France in 2014 which led to a high anti-Muslim atmosphere in west, Ayatollah Khamenei sent a message to the youths in Europe and North America. In this message, he asked the youth that in order to know Islam, they need to refer to the original references for Islam which are the Qur'an and the life of the Prophet (s).

This message was widely spread in online social networks in several languages with a hash-tag of "Letter4u". It seems that such a message has been unprecedented among Muslim and Shi'a scholars.

Notes

  1. Tadawum-i aftab, p. 21
  2. Sharif Razi, Ganjini-yi danishmandan, vol. 7. p. 127
  3. Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, p. 15
  4. Zangini, Mashahir-i madfun dar haram-i Radawi, vol. 1, p. 77
  5. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a, vol. 2, p. 640
  6. Gulshan-i abrar, vol. 2, p. 971
  7. Kasrawi, Qiyam-i shaykh Muhammad Khiyabani, p. 92
  8. Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, vol. 12
  9. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, Al-Dhari'a, vol. 6, p. 13
  10. Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, Al-Dhari'a, vol. 2, p. 559
  11. Mirza 'Abd al-Rahman, Tarikh-i 'ulama-yi Khurasan, p. 308; Qasimpur, Dahi-yi sarniwishtsaz, p. 60
  12. Zangini, Mashahir-i madfun dar haram-i Radawi, vol. 1, p. 458
  13. Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, p. 49
  14. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, No. 1226
  15. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 1226
  16. Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, p. 78
  17. Jomhuri-yi Islami Newspaper, January 19, 1980
  18. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 1228
  19. Jalali, Mashhad dar bamdad-i nihdat-i Islami, p. 148
  20. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 1229-1231
  21. Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, pp. 129-134
  22. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614; 1231-1232
  23. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no.1233
  24. Yaran-i Imam bi riwayat-i asnad-i Savak, vol. 1, p. 468
  25. Imam Khomeini dar a'ini-yi asnad, vol. 4, p. 392
  26. Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, pp. 162-166
  27. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 1234
  28. Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, p. 187
  29. Buhbudi, Sharh-i ism, pp. 192-195
  30. Hashimi, Duwran-i mubarizi, vol. 2, p. 1566
  31. Yaran-i Imam bi riwayat-i asnad-i Savak, vol. 3, pp. 5-7
  32. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614
  33. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 574
  34. Bazargan, Yaddasht-ha-yi ruzani, pp. 422-423
  35. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614
  36. Yaran-i Imam bi riwayat-i asnad-i Savak, vol. 1, p. 248; vol. 2, p. 497; vol. 38, p. 14; vol. 44, p. 521; vol. 15, p. 355
  37. Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, pp. 331-332; 470-471
  38. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 123; no. 614
  39. Sahifi-yi Imam, 358, 372, 373
  40. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614
  41. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614
  42. Yaran-i Imam bi riwayat-i asnad-i Savak, vol. 31, p. 455; Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 573
  43. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 527, 574, 614
  44. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 575
  45. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no.304, 389, 575
  46. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 572, 576
  47. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 389, 572
  48. Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 576
  49. Sahifi-yi Imam, vol. 5, p. 426-428
  50. Pa bi pa-yi aftab, vol. 2, p. 192
  51. Qasimpur, Dahi-yi sarniwisht-saz, pp. 92-94
  52. Bashiri, Hashimi, inqilab wa piruzi, p. 169
  53. Sa'ili, Tarikh-chi-yi showra-yi inqilab-i Islami, p. 11
  54. Sa'ili, Tarikh-chi-yi showra-yi inqilab-i Islami, pp. 49-62
  55. Sa'ili, Tarikh-chi-yi showra-yi inqilab-i Islami, pp. 117-118
  56. Bashiri, Hashimi, inqilab wa piruzi, p. 449
  57. Bashiri, Hashimi, inqilab wa piruzi, p. 125
  58. Bashiri, Hashimi, inqilab wa piruzi, pp. 215-218
  59. Jasbi, Az ghubar ta baran, vol. 4, p. 149
  60. Jasbi, Az ghubar ta baran, vol. 4, p. 146
  61. Hashimi, Ubur az buhran, p. 263
  62. Bakhshayish, Khatirat-i Sayyid Murtada Nabawi, p. 168
  63. Jasbi, Az ghubar ta baran, vol. 4, p. 300
  64. Jumhuri-yi Islami Newspaper, no. 1541, p. 15; no.1543, p. 2
  65. Sahifi-yi Imam, vol. 12, p. 116
  66. Sahifi-yi Imam, vol. 14. p. 304

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