Al-Mirza al-Qummi

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Mirza Abu al-Qasim Qummihttp://en.wikishia.net
Al-Mirza al-Qummi.JPG
Personal Information
Full Name Mirza Abu al-Qasim b. Muhammad Hasan Shafti
Well-Known As Al-Mirza al-Qummi
Well-Known Relatives Muhammad Hasan Shafti
Birth 1150/1737-38
Residence Brujird
Studied in Khwansar, Karbala
Death 1231/1815-16
Burial Place Shaykhan cemetery, Qom
Scholarly Information
Professors Muhammad Baqir Bihbahani
Students Al-Shaykh Asad Allah al-Tustari, Al-Sayyid 'Abd Allah al-Shubbar, ...
Works Al-Qawanin al-muhkama fi l-Usul, Jami' al-shitat, ...
Scholarly
Activities
Leading Salat al-Jum'a and Salat al-Jama'a
Socio-Political Activities
Socio-Political
Activities
Having correspondence with Fath Ali Shah

Al-Mīrzā Abu l-Qāsim b. Muḥammad Ḥasan al-Shaftī (Arabic: المیرزا ابوالقاسِم بن مُحَمَّد حَسَن الشَفتی) (b. 1150/1737-38 d. 1231/1815-16), commonly known as al-Mīrzā al-Qummī and Muḥaqqiq Qummī, was a Shi'a Marja' in the 12th and 13th centuries. He was contemporaries with some Qajar shahs and advised them to be tolerant of people and firm in their faith. Performing Salat al-Jum'a (Friday prayer) and Salat al-Jama'a (congregational prayer) were his other activities. His most important work is his book Qawanin and hence he was titled as Sāḥib Qawānīn (owner or author of Qwanin). Validity of absolute conjecture, conjoining command and prohibition in a single personal subject and permissibility of judgment for a Muqalid according to a fatwa of his Marja' were some of his special jurisprudential opinions.

Biography

Al-Mirza al-Qummi was born in 1150/1737-38 in Darr-i Bagh village (located in Japilq district, about 12 km away form Burujird) and passed away in 1231/1815-16 in Qom. 1151 and 1153 is also reported as his birthdate and 1233 as his demise date. He was entombed in Shaykhan cemetery in Qom.

His father, who was from Shaft (a village near Fuman), had studied in Hawza-i 'Ilmiyya of Isfahan (Shi'a seminary of Isfahan) and then moved to Japliq.

Educations

Al-Mirza al-Qummi studied Arabic and Farsi grammar and literature under his father in his home village, Darr-i Bagh. Then he moved to Khwansar and became a student of Sayyid Husayn Khwansari in Fiqh and Usul. After a few years he married Khwansari's sister. Then he emigrated to Karbala, Iraq, and became a student of Muhammad Baqir Bihbahani.

After a while and by getting permission from Bihbahani, he returned to Darr-i Bagh and went to Qal'-i Bano village (a village in Japliq) and then went to Kasi Garan school in Isfahan and after that went to Shiraz which coincided with the reign of Karim Khan Zand. He stayed in Shiraz for 2 or 3 years. Then he returned to Isfahan and went to Babu village and started to teach Fiqh and Usul to some Hawza students. He lived a hard life economically. Then he moved to Qom, where he thought, authored his books, became very well-known in the country and became a Marja'.

Scholarly Status

Al-Mirza al-Qummi was known as Muhaqqiq Qummi. Validity of absolute conjecture, conjoining command and prohibition in a single personal subject and permissibility of judgment for a Muqalid according to a fatwa of his Marja' were some of his special jurisprudential opinions.

Sociopolitical Activities

Al-Mirza al-Qummi was contemporaries with some Qajar shahs, such as Agha Muhammad Khan and Fath Ali Shah. He had correspondence with Fath Ali Shah and in a letter advised Shah to be tolerant of people and in another advised him to be strong and firm in his faith and not to incline toward Sufism.

He performed Salat al-Jum'a (Friday prayer) and Salat al-Jama'a (congregational prayer) in Qom.

Works

It is said that he authored more than 1000 treatises in various fields. Some of his works are:

  • Al-Qawanin al-muhkama fi l-Usul: commonly known as Qawanin which is book on Usul al-Fiqh. For years it was regarded as a textbook in Hawza.
  • Glosses on al-Sharh 'ala Sharh al-Mukhtasar.
  • Commentary on Tahdhib al-wusul written by al-'Allama al-Hilli
  • Ghana'im al-ayyam fi al-Fiqh
  • Manahij al-ahkam
  • Jami' al-shitat (in Persian)
  • Mu'in al-khawas
  • Murshid al-'awam
  • Risalat fi al-usul al-khamsa al-i'tiqadiyya
  • Risalat fi qa'ida al-tasamuh fi adilla al-sunan

Students

Some of his students are:

References