Al-Sayyid Muhammad Jawad al-'Amili
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Place of Birth||Jabal Amel|
|Residence||Jabal Amel, Karbala, Najaf|
|Studied in||Jabal Amel, Karbala|
|Burial Place||Holy Shrine of Imam 'Ali (a)|
|Professors||al-Wahid al-Bihbahani, al-Sayyid Ali al-Tabataba'i, ...|
|Students||Sahib al-Jawahir, Al-Sayyid Sadr al-Din al-'Amili, ...|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Works||Miftah al-karama, ...|
|Defending Najaf during the attack of Wahhabis|
Al-Sayyid Jawād al-Ḥusaynī al-ʿĀmilī (Arabic: السيد جواد الحسيني العاملي) (b. 1160/1747, d. 1226/1811) known as al-Sayyid Jawad al-'Amili from Jabal Amel of Lebanon, was a scholar in fiqh and hadith in early 13th/19th century and the author of Miftah al-karama on fiqh. During the religious authority of al-Wahid al-Bihbahani, al-'Amili went to Karbala and studied under al-Sayyid Ali al-Tabataba'i (the author of Riyad).
Birth and Education
In 1152/1739-40, or according to a report, in 1160/1747, he was born in Shuqara' village of Jabal Amel. Al-Sayyid Jawad spent his childhood in Maktab [elementary school] and learned primary knowledge from his cousin, Abu l-Hasan Musa. In 1194/1780, he went to Iraq and attended the class of al-Wahid al-Bihbahani and Sayyid Ali Tabataba'i (the author of Riyad) and acquired knowledge.
Some of his teachers are as follow:
Some of his students are:
- Sahib al-Jawahir. He had permission for transmitting hadith from al-Sayyid Jawad.
- Al-Sayyid Sadr al-Din al-'Amili
- Al-Shaykh Jawad, known as Mulla Kitab
- Ali Hizarjaribi
- Al-Shaykh Muhsin al-A'sam
Scientific and Social Activities
When al-Sayyid Bahr al-'Ulum took over the management of the Seminary of Najaf, shared the responsibilities and assigned al-Sayyid Jawad to research and writing. After al-Sayyid Bahr al-'Ulum passed away and Kashif al-Ghita' travelled to Iran, al-Sayyid Jawad began teaching. He also began fighting with deviant sects.
Defending Najaf against the Assault of Wahhabis
Al-Sayyid Jawad al-'Amili together with Shaykh Ja'far Kashif al-Ghita', were among the scholars who defended Najaf against the assault of Wahhabis. After attacking Karbala in 1216/1802 and looting it, Wahhabis assaulted Najaf in 1220/1805-06 and 1221/1806-07 to destroy the Shrine of Imam Ali (a).
The number of Wahhabis who assaulted Najaf is reported 15 thousand people; while, in some reports, the number of defenders of the city is mentioned to be less than 200. Due to the fear of people of Najaf for Wahhabis' plunder, many people escaped the city and took refuge with tribes around it. Only a group of scholars including Shaykh Ja'far Kashif al-Ghita', Shaykh Husayn Najaf, Shaykh Khidr Shalal, Shaykh Mahdi Mulla Katib and al-Sayyid Jawad al-'Amili and a group of people stayed in the city to defend it.
Although the number of defenders of the city was low against the number of Wahhabis, they not only could not break the defense of the city, but also lost about 700 soldiers and retreated. Al-Sayyid Jawad al-'Amili who was a witness to the event, reported about entering some Wahhabi invaders from over the walls of the city and the possibility of taking over the city by them. About Wahhabis' assault to Najaf, the Wahhabi historian, Ibn Bushr mentioned the existence of a wide and deep trench around the city as the reason for keeping the defense of Najaf, their casualties and retreat.
- Miftah al-karama fi sharh Qawa'id al-ahkam by al-'Allama al-Hilli,
- A book about khums
- A book about Rida'
- A book about Zakat
- A book about Asl al-bara'a
- A commentary on Tahdhib al-usul by al-'Allama al-Hilli
- A commentary on al-Rawda by al-Shahid al-Thani
- A commentary on Madarik al-ahkam
- Sharh al-wafiya in usul al-fiqh
- Tajwid al-Qur'an al-Karim
In 1226/1811, he passed away at the age of 66 in Najaf and was buried in one of the rooms on the east of the shrine of Imam Ali (a).
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سید جواد عاملی in Farsi WikiShi'a.