Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam (book)
|Madarik al-ahkam fi sharh shara'i' al-Islam|
|Author||Sayyid Muhammad al-Musawi al-'Amili|
|Original title||مَدارِک الأحکام فی شرح شَرایع الإسلام|
Madārik al-aḥkām fī sharḥ sharāʾiʿ al-Islām (Arabic: مَدارِک الأحکام فی شرح شَرائع الإسلام) is a book on jurisprudence in Arabic written by al-Sayyid Muhammad al-Musawi al-'Amili (b. 946/1539-40 – d. 1009/1600-1). This book is a commentary on al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli's Shara'i' al-Islam. The book contains the section on acts of worship from Shara'i' al-Islam which begins from the book of tahara (cleanness) and ends with book of hajj. Madarik al-ahkam is among the best books on demonstrative jurisprudence and has been referred to by Shi'a scholars and many commentaries have been written for it.
- Main article: Sayyid Muhammad al-Musawi al-'Amili
Sayyid Shams al-Din Muhammad b. Ali Musawi al-'Amili known as Sahib al-Madarik (authour of Madarik) was among Shi'i scholars of 10th/16th century. He was born in Jabal Amel in 946/1540. Sayyid Muhammad passed his education in his home town and learned under great scholars. His most famous work is Madarik al-ahkam and commentary on Alfiyya by al-Shahid al-Awwal, commentary of al-Mukhtasar al-nafi', commentary on al-Istibsar, commentary on Tahdhib are among his other works.
About Shara'i' al-Islam
- Main article: Shara'i' al-Islam fi masa'il al-halal wa l-haram
Sharayi' al-Islam fi masa'il al-Halal wa l-Haram known as Shara'i' is among Twelver Shi'a books on jurisprudence written by Abu l-Qasim Najm al-Din Ja'far b. al-Hasan al-Hilli known as al-Muhaqqiq al-Hilli (d. 676/1277). This book was always referred to by scholars in jurisprudence and has been among textbooks of Shi'a seminary. Many researches have been made regarding Sharayi' .
Content and Volumes
The first edition of Madarik al-ahkam was written in three volumes. It contained discussions on purity until the end of hajj.
- First volume includes definition of tahara (cleanness), types of tahara, types of water, cancelers of wudu, rulings of discharging bodily wastes, wudu, ghusl, rulings of janaba, menstruation, and its rulings and the ghusl for menstruation.
- Second volume includes discussions of menstrual regular discharges, bleeding after childbirth (nifas), rulings of the deceased, Ghusl of the Dead, enshrouding the dead, burial, recommended ghusls, tayammum, impurities and the ghusl for touching the dead.
- Volume three includes the discussions on obligatory and recommended prayers, number of their rak'as, time of prayer, Qibla, clothes and place of the prayer, adhan and iqama, actions in prayer, and cancelers of prayer.
- Volume four includes the discussions on Friday prayer, prayers of Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Ghadir, prayer for solar eclipse, prayers of the dead, rulings of problems in prayers, Qada' Prayer, congregational prayer, rulings of the mosque, and Traveller's Prayer.
- Volume five includes definition of zakat, obligations in paying zakat, (zakat of animals, gold and silver, crops, merchandise), khums, and anfal.
- Volume six includes discussions about fasting, Invalidators of Fasting, Makruh (reprehensible) issues during fasting, time of fasting, correct fasting, signs of entering the month of Ramadan, requirements for the fasting in the month of Ramadan, qada' fasting, fasting of kaffara, i'tikaf, requirements of i'tikaf, types of i'tikaf, rulings of i'tikaf and Invalidators of i'tikaf.
- Volume seven includes definition of hajj, conditions of obligation of hajjat al-Islam, hajj for nadhr, niyaba, hajj al-tamattu', hajj al-ifrad, hajj al-qiran, types of miqats, rulings of miqats, steps before ihram, recommendations, prohibitions and Makruh (reprehensible) things in ihram, staying in 'Arafat, obligations, rulings and recommendations in staying in 'Arafa, staying in al-Mash'ar (obligations and rulings).
- Volume eight includes discussions regarding moving to Mina and its rituals, descriptions of hady, hady of al-hqiran, udhiyya, shaving the head, taqsir for circumambulation (requirements, obligations, rulings, recommendations), sa'y, rulings of Mina after return, rulings of Medina and Mecca, ihsar and sadd, rulings of hunting, what requires suretyship (diman), hunting in the sanctuary, prohibitions in ihram, rulings of wearing perfume, wearing knitted clothes, shaving, combing, fighting, uprooting trees of the sanctuary and the book of 'umra.
Annotations and Commentaries
Since its compilation,Madarik al-ahkam has always been referred to by great Shia scholars and many annotations and commentaries have been written on it.
Copies and Prints
The book has been published by Mu'assisat Al al-Bayt (a) li Ihya' al-Turath in 1411/1990 in Beirut. In publication, the four following manuscripts have been used:
- First copy kept in the Library of Astan-i Quds-i Radawi written by Muhammad Husayn b. Sa'd al-Din al-Ghifari in 1000/1591 containing the book from the beginning up to the book of hajj. Handwriting of the author confirms the manuscript.
- Second copy kept in the Library of Astan-i Quds-i Radawi dating back to 1006/1597 containing the discussions of the prayer of solar eclipse up to the end of the book.
- Third copy kept in the Library of the Iranian Parliament written by Sayyid Husayn b. Ali Zayn al-Din al-'Amili in 1008/1599 and contains the book from the beginning to the end of the Eid prayer.
- Fourth copy kept in the Library of the Iranian parliament written by Husayn b. Ali al-Khu'i in 1241/1825.
The first copy has been read by the author. He himself has omitted some parts and added some other parts. The second copy is an exact copy of the first copy. But, the third and fourth copies have differences with the first and second copies.
- Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Amal al-āmil, vol. 1, p. 168.
- Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 6, p. 196.
- Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Amal al-āmil, vol. 1, p. 168.
- Tihrānī, al-Dharīʿa, vol. 6, p. 196-198.
- Āmilī, Madārik al-aḥkām, p. 40-41.
- Āmilī, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Musawī al-. Madārik al-aḥkām. Beirut: Āl al-Bayt, 1411 AH.
- Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Amal al-āmil. Edited by Sayyid Aḥmad al-Ḥusaynī. Baghdad: Maktabat al-Andulus, [n.d].
- Tihrānī, Muḥammad Muḥsin. Al-Dharīʿa ilā taṣānīf al-Shīʿa. Beirut: Dār al-Aḍwāʾ, [n.d].