Misbah al-mutahajjid (book)
|Original title||مِصباحُ المُتَهجِّد و سلاحُ المُتَعَبّد|
|Subject||Fiqh, supplication, ziyarah|
Miṣbāḥ al-mutahajjid wa silāḥ al-mutaʿabbid (Arabic: مِصباحُ المُتَهجِّد و سلاحُ المُتَعَبّد) or al-Miṣbāḥ al-Kabīr (Arabic: المِصباحُ الکَبیر) is a book written by al-Shaykh al-Tusi (d. 460/1066) in Arabic on du'a, supplication, ziyarat, practices and recommended manners of different days and months. Since its publication, it has always been a reference of Shia and Shia scholars. In this book, some rulings area also mentioned along with some du'as and supplications.
- Main article: Al-Shaykh al-Tusi
Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. 'Ali b. al-Hasan (b. 385/995 – d. 460/1066) known as al-Shaykh al-Ta'ifa and al-Shaykh al-Tusi was the author of the two books of Tahdhib and al-Istibsar from the Four Books of Shia hadiths references. He is regarded among the greatest hadith and fiqh scholars of Shia. He had influential works in Kalam and the Qur'an exegesis. At the age of 23, he went to Iraq from Khurasan and benefited from great scholars there including al-Shaykh al-Mufid and al-Sayyid al-Murtada.
When al-Shaykh al-Tusi arrived in Baghdad in 408/1017-8, he benefited from Shapur library, which was burnt later, and also from the library of his teacher al-Sayyid al-Murtada and began collecting hadiths of authentic Shia hadiths collections [Usul] and the books which were written by the companions of Imams (a). In that period, there were sources and books available which are not available now and al-Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned them in his books. He wrote Tahdhib al-ahkam, al-Istibsar and Misbah al-mutahajjid at that time.
In this book, al-Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned du'as and prayers recommended during the year. There, he also has mentioned some rulings related to prayers. This book contains many topics including purity, night prayer, practices of the eve of Friday, supplications in a week, du'as of the month of Ramadan, etc.
- Purity; containing different types and qualities and its rulings in nine parts.
- Kitab al-Salat where al-Shaykh al-Tusi has discussed about prayer's conditions, general types, branches, rulings and manners in four parts and twelve general titles.
- Weekly supplications which contains supplications in the nights and the days of the week.
- Practices of Hijri months which have been mentioned in one to twelve parts.
Value and Authenticity
This book is among the important sources for supplication and ziyarat and books such as Ibn Fahd al-Hilli's 'Uddat al-da'i, Kaf'ami's Misbah, Sayyid b. Tawus's Iqbal al-a'mal and Shaykh Abbas Qummi's Mafatih al-jinan have all benefited from Misbah al-mutahajjid. Some great Shia scholars have summarized it, translated it and written commentary for it, and have written many works related to it.
In 635/1237-1238, Al-Sayyid b. Tawus wrote five books as supplements to Misbah al-mutahajjid:
- Falah al-sa'il on practices during the day
- Zuhrat al-rabi' on the practices of the week
- Al-Daru' al-waqi'iya on practices of every month
- Iqbal al-a'mal on the practices every year
- Asrar al-salat
Regarding the great attention made to the book, al-Shaykh al-Tusi decided to summarize the book so that people could better use it. He called the summary Misbah al-mutahajjid saghir.
Other scholars also summarized it including:
- Shaykh Nizam al-Din Sulayman b. Hasan Sahrashti who called his summary Qabas al-isbah fi talkhis al-misbah
- 'Allama al-Hilli who summarized the book following the request of the minister of Muhammad b. Qawhadi and called it Minhaj al-salah fi mukhtasar al-misbah. At the end of it, he added Al-Bab al-hadi 'ashar which is a course of beliefs.
- Sayyid Ali Husayn Baqi Qurashi known as Ibn Baqi who called his summary Ikhtiyar al-misbah.
- Diya' al-thaqalayn written by Mirza Hatam b. Nizam al-Mulk.
Some scholars have translated it such as:
- Sayyid Ali Imami Isfahani contemporary with the author of Riyad al-'Ulama
- Shaykh Abbas Qummi who translated Misbah al-mutahajjid to Farsi in 1331/1912-3. It has been printed in the margin of Misbah al-mutahajjid.
Some great scholars have written commentaries on Misbah al-mutahajjid such as:
- Sayyid Baha' al-Din Ali b. Abd al-Karim Nili who called his commentary on Misbah al-mutahajjid, Idah al-misbah
- Sayyid Zayn al-Din Ali b. Abd al-Hamid Husayni Najafi
- There is a copy of the book in the library of Astan Quds Radawi which dates back to 40 years after al-Shaykh al-Tusi passed away, i.e. 500/1106-1107.
- A copy of the book in the library of Shaykh isma'il Ansari which dates back to 1082/1672
- A printed copy which belonged to Shaykh Abbas Qummi
This book has been printed many times in different countries. In one of its prints (by Mu'assisa Fiqh Shi'a), Ali Asghar Murwarid and Abudhar Bidar corrected it, researched about it and wrote an introduction for it.
- The content of this article is mainly taken from (مصباح المتهجد (کتاب in Farsi WikiShia.