The Four Books
The Four Books, (Arabic: الکتب الأربعة / الأصول الأربعة), are the four main collections of hadith which, after the Qur'an, form the basis of Shi'a beliefs and practices. The Four Books are al-Kafi, Tahdhib al-ahkam, al-Istibsar and Man la yahduruh al-faqih.
- Main article: al-Kafi
Al-Kafi was compiled by Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Ya'qub Kulayni (d. 329/941) during the Minor Occultation period. It contains 16,000 hadith which are divided into the three general sections of usul, furu', and rawda. usul contains hadith related to beliefs, furu' contains hadith concerning fiqh, and rawda contains hadith pertaining to akhlaq and morality.
Man la yahduruh al-faqih
- Main article: Man la yahduruh al-faqih
This work was compiled by al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babawayh al-Qummi (d. 381/991). It contains 6,000 hadith related to fiqh and practical rulings - all of which al-Saduq deemed as authentic and used as the basis for his fatwas.
- Main article: Tahdhib al-ahkam
This hadith collection was compiled by Shaykh al-Ta'ifah Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Tusi (d. 460/1067). The hadith it contains are also mainly related to fiqh. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi compiled this work by the order of al-Shaykh al-Mufid as a commentary to al-Mufid's al-Muqni'a. In it, al-Tusi discusses rulings of fiqh ranging from taharah to diyat. The order of the book's content is the same as that of al-Shaykh al-Mufid's al-Muqni'ah. It contains 393 chapters and a total of 13,590 hadith. There is a section on mashikhah at the end of this book which includes al-Tusi's chain of authorities for the sources he used.
- Main article: al-Istibsar
This hadith collection was compiled by al-Shaykh al-Tusi after Tahdhib al-ahkam in response to requests from some of his students. It consists of 5,511 hadith. In this work he has collected only those hadith relating to fiqh which apparently contradict each other. Like other fiqh references, the categorization of topics in this book begins with taharah and ends with diyat. Under each topic, he first mentions the hadith he regards as authentic, then mentions the ones that apparently contradict them, and finally, attempts to harmonize them.
- Modir Shanehchi, Tarikh-i Hadith, p. 116 - 119.
- Modir Shanehchi. Tarikh-i Hadith. p. 130 - 135.
- Modir Shanehchi. Tarikh-i Hadith. p. 138 - 140.
- Modir Shanehchi. Tarikh-i Hadith. p. 148 - 150.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from کتب اربعه in Farsi Wikishia.
- Modir Shanehchi, Kazim, Tarikh-i Hadith, Samt Publication, Tehran, 1419/1998.