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The Four Books

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The Four Books ; the most important sources in Shiite hadith and jurisprudence.

The Four Books, (Arabic: الکتب الأربعة / الأصول الأربعة), are the four main collections of hadith which, after the Qur'an, form the basis of Shi'a beliefs and practices. The Four Books are al-Kafi, Tahdhib al-ahkam, al-Istibsar and Man la yahduruh al-faqih.

Al-Kafi

Main article: al-Kafi
The most important hadith books
Shia
(The Four Books)
  1. Al-Kafi
  2. Man la yahduruh al-faqih
  3. Tahdhib al-ahkam
  4. Al-Istibsar
Sunni
(The Authentic Six)
  1. Sahih al-Bukhari
  2. Sahih Muslim
  3. Sunan Abu Dawud
  4. Sunan ibn Majah
  5. Jami' al-Tirmidhi
  6. Al-Sunan al-Sughra

Al-Kafi was compiled by Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. Ya'qub Kulayni (d. 329/941) during the Minor Occultation period. It contains 16,000 hadith which are divided into the three general sections of usul (principles), furu' (branches), and rawda (miscellaneous part). Usul contains hadiths related to beliefs, furu' contains hadiths concerning fiqh, and rawda contains hadiths pertaining to akhlaq and morality.[1]

Man la yahduruh al-faqih

This work was compiled by al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn b. Babawayh al-Qummi (d. 381/991). It contains 6,000 hadiths related to fiqh and practical rulings - all of which al-Saduq deemed as authentic and used as the basis for his fatwas.[2]

Tahdhib al-ahkam

Main article: Tahdhib al-ahkam

This hadith collection was compiled by Shaykh al-Ta'ifah Abu Ja'far Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Tusi (d. 460/1067). The hadith it contains are also mainly related to fiqh. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi compiled this work by the order of al-Shaykh al-Mufid as a commentary to al-Mufid's al-Muqni'a. In it, al-Tusi discusses rulings of fiqh ranging from tahara (purity) to diyat (blood money). The order of the book's content is the same as that of al-Shaykh al-Mufid's al-Muqni'ah. It contains 393 chapters and a total of 13,590 hadiths. There is a section on mashikha at the end of this book which includes al-Tusi's chain of transmission for the sources he used.[3]

Al-Istibsar

Main article: al-Istibsar

This hadith collection was compiled by al-Shaykh al-Tusi after Tahdhib al-ahkam in response to requests from some of his students. It consists of 5,511 hadiths.[4] In this work he has collected only those hadiths relating to fiqh which apparently contradict each other. Like other fiqh references, the categorization of topics in this book begins with tahara and ends with diyat. Under each topic, he first mentions the hadiths he regards as authentic, then mentions the ones that apparently contradict them, and finally, attempts to harmonize them.

Notes

  1. Modir Shanehchi, Tarikh-i Hadith, p. 116 - 119.
  2. Modir Shanehchi. Tarikh-i Hadith. p. 130 - 135.
  3. Modir Shanehchi. Tarikh-i Hadith. p. 138 - 140.
  4. Modir Shanehchi. Tarikh-i Hadith. p. 148 - 150.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from کتب اربعه in Farsi Wikishia.
  • Modir Shanehchi, Kazim, Tarikh-i Hadith, Samt Publication, Tehran, 1419/1998.