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Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazir (book)

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Tanbih al-khawatir
Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazir
Author Warram b. Abi Firas al-Hilli
Original title تَنبیهُ الخَواطِر و نُزهَةُ النَّواظِر
Language Arabic
Series 2 volumes
Subject Ethics
Genre Hadith

Tanbīh al-khawāṭir wa nuzhat al-nawāẓir (Arabic: تَنبیهُ الخَواطِر و نُزهَةُ النَّواظِر) is a book in Arabic written by Warram b. Abi Firas al-Hilli, Twelver Shi'a faqih and hadith scholar of the 6th/12th century. The topic of this book is moral lessons and dictums.

Name

The name of the book has been mentioned in different ways such as: Tanbih al-khatir wa nuzhat al-nazir[1],nuzhat al-nazir wa Tanbih al-khatir[2], Tanbih al-khawatir[3], Tanbih al-khatir[4], nuzhat al-nazir[5] and Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nazir[6]. This book is also known as Majmu'a Warram.

Content

The title and its subtitle "Fi l-targib wa al-tarhib wa al-mawa'iz wa al-zawajir" which has been mentioned in some references following the title[7], shows that is about moral lessons and dictums.

Tanbih al-khawatir includes two parts which are both divided to chapters with an approximate order; however, despite specific titles for each chapter, the topics of each are not definitely categorized under the chapter title and the book looks like a collection of hadiths, poems, proverbs and stories.

The first part contains 66 independent topics; however the author has not given any titles to the topics of the second part.

Most important topics of the book are lessons in practical ethics such as enjoining to piety and moral purity, listing vices and their cures, mentioning virtues and ways of achieving them, topics on manners of association and other details on the manners of living, some chapters on death and hereafter life and description of the Resurrection and Day of Judgment. The second part contains some sermons from the Prophet (s) and Imams (a) and discussions Shi'a had with them.

In the first part, the influence of al-Ghazzali's Ihya al-'Ulum on the book is obvious to the extent that it can be considered an adoption of that. In many cases, Warram has copied al-Ghazzali's content fully or with slight modification without mentioning his name.

Generally, the author's original approach can be considered an ascetic morality based on the Qur'an and the conduct of the Prophet (s) which has been extended to include stories and quotations from Iranian kings and noblemen, Sufis and the people of wisdom.

Weaknesses

Like many other books containing a collection of hadiths in ethics, this book also suffers from lack of authenticity of hadiths; about which, al-Hurr al-'Amili[8] said, the book contains authentic and inauthentic, strong and weak hadiths. Even with al-Majlisi so much benefited from this book, he also confirmed that there is no ways of discrimination among hadiths in the book and hadiths of Shi'a Imams have been mixed with Sunni's. Therefore, al-Majlisi only quoted those hadiths he deemed reliable.[9] However, Agha Buzurg Tihrani believed that Warram had mixed Shi'a and Sunni reports intentionally so that Sunnis are attracted to the book and they may be guided.[10]

Manuscripts

According to Mirza 'Abd Allah Afandi al-Isfahani in Riyad al-'ulama, there have been a concise manuscript of Tanbih al-khawatir and a comprehensive version too.[11]

Also al-Sayyid b. Tawus has quoted some texts from Tanbih al-khawatir in Falah al-sa'il and al-Yaqin which are non-existent in printed copy and possibly existed in the comprehensive version too.[12]

The common edition of Tanbih al-khawatir comprises the two parts in one volume which was lithographed in 1924 in Tehran and later was frequently reprinted.

Notes

  1. Al-Majlisi,Bihar al-anwar, vol. 1, pp. 10, 22, 106
  2. Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'a. vol. 12. pp. 66
  3. Nuri. Mustadrak al-wasa'il, vol. 1, p. 109; Amin A'yan al-Shi'a, vol. 3, p. 448.
  4. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 1, p. 29; vol. 85, p. 4.
  5. Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'a. vol.20. pp. 109
  6. Al-Amin, Mustadrakat a'yan al-Shi'a, vol. 1, p. 250.
  7. Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'a, vol. 24, p. 130.
  8. Al-Hurr al-'Amili, Amal al-amil, part 2, p. 338.
  9. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 1, p. 29.
  10. Agha Buzurg, al-Dhari'a, vol. 24, p. 131.
  11. Afandi al-Isfahani. Riyad al-ulama. vol. 5, p. 286.
  12. Kohlberg, Kitabkhana Ibn Tawus wa ahwal wa athar ou, p. 386.

References

  • The material for this article is mainly taken from تنبیه الخواطر و نزهة النواظر in Farsi WikiShia.
  • Tihrani, Agha Buzurg. Al-Dhari'at ila tasanif al-Shi'a. Maktabat Sahib al-Dhari'a al-'Amah, Najaf.
  • Afandi, 'Abd Allah b. 'Isa. Riyad al-'ulama wa hiyad al-fudala. Ahmad Husayni Printing, Qom, 1401.
  • Amin, Hasan al-. Mustadrakat a'yan al-Shi'a. Beirut, 1408-1416/1987-1996.
  • Amin, Muhsin al-. A'yan al-Shi'a. Hasan al-Amin Printing, Beirut, 1403/1983.
  • Hurr al-'Amili, Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-. Amal al-amil. Ahmad Husayni Printing, 2nd part, Qom, 1984.
  • Kohlberg, Etan. A Medieval Muslim Scholar at Work: Ibn Ṭāwūs and His Library. Translated as "Kitabkhanah Ibn Tawus wa ahwal wa athar ou" by 'Ali Qara'i and Rasul Ja'fariyan. Qom, 1993.
  • Nuri, Husayn b. Muhammad Taqi. Mustadrak al-wasa'il. Lithograph Printing of Tehran 1318-1321
  • Warram, Mas'ud b. 'Isa. Tanbih al-khawatir wa nuzhat al-nawazir al-ma'ruf bi-majmu'at Warram. 'Ali Asghar Hamed Printing, Tehran, 1376.
  • Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir al-. Bihar al-anwar li durar akhbar al-a'imma al-athar. Beirut: Mu'assisat al-Wafa'.