'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a) (book)
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|'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a)|
|Original title||عيون اخبار الرضا|
|Subject||Biography and Hadiths of Imam al-Rida (a)|
|Publisher||Beirut, Mu'asisa al-A'lami|
|En. publisher||Qom: Ansariyan Publications|
ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā (a) (Arabic: عيون اخبار الرضا), also known as 'Uyun al-akhbar (Arabic: عيون الأخبار), is a hadith reference about Imam al-Rida (a) compiled by the great Twelver Shi'a scholar, al-Shaykh al-Saduq (d. 381/991). The hadith contained in this book are either the Imam's (a) own sayings or that which he has quoted from his forefathers (a). This book is among the most important Shi'a references, covering topics such as history, fiqh, ethics and theology.
Date of Writing
Previous Monographs on Imam al-Rida (a)
Before 'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a) was written, a few other works on Imam al-Rida (a) already existed:
Wafat al-Rida (a) written by 'Abd al-Salam b. Salih known as Abu Salt Hirawi;
Akhbar 'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a) written by 'Abd al-'Aziz b. Yahya al-Juludi.
Goal of Writing
According to al-Shaykh al-Saduq in his introduction, When Sahib b. 'Ibad al-Daylami, the Shi'a minister and ruler of that time, wrote a poem praising 'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a) and dedicated it to him, he wrote 'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a) in return and gifted it to Sahib b. 'Ibad al-Daylami. In this regard, al-Shaykh al-Saduq wrote, "I found no other better gift than this book which is about the infinite knowledge of Imam al-Rida (a) to send in return for the two odes of Ibn 'Ibad."
Similar to al-Shaykh al-Saduq's other books, some of the hadith mentioned have a complete chain of transmitters, and some are mursal, or have only a few names known among the chain of transmitters.
The book's chapters are as follows:
- Chapter one: Why is 'Ali b. Musa (a) called al-Rida (a)
- Chapter two: Al-Rida's (a) mother and her name
- Chapter three: The birth date of al-Rida (a)
- Chapter four: Imam al-Kazim's (a) clear appointment of Imam al-Rida (a)
- Chapter five: Musa b. Ja'far's (a) will
- Chapter six: Proofs of divine leadership of al-Rida (a) among the Twelve Imams (a)
- Chapter seven: Musa b. Ja'far (a), Harun al-Rashid and Musa b. al-Mahdi
- Chapter eight: The death of Abu Ibrahim Musa b. Ja'far (a)
- Chapter nine: The descendants of God's Prophet (s) said to have been killed by al-Rashid in one night after poisoning Musa b. Ja'far (a), and also those killed by others
- Chapter ten: Reasons for the formation of the Waqifites
- Chapter eleven: Unity
- Chapter twelve: A session of al-Rida's (a) debate with prominent theologians from among the rhetoricians and the various religions
- Chapter thirteen: A session in the presence of al-Ma'mun of al-Rida's (a) debate on unity with Sulayman al-Mirwazi, the theologian from Khorasan
- Chapter fourteen: Another session of al-Rida (a) and al-Ma'mun along with people from different nations and the rhetoricians, as well as Imam al-Rida's (s) answers to Muhammad b. al-Jahm regarding the immaculateness of the Prophets (s)
- Chapter fifteen: Another session with al-Rida (a) and al-Ma'mun on the infallibility of the Prophets
- Chapter sixteen: The people of the ditch
- Chapter seventeen: The interpretation of the Al-Mighty God's words, "And We ransomed him with a momentous sacrifice"
- Chapter eighteen: The Prophet's (s) statement, "I am the son of the two offerings"
- Chapter nineteen: The sign of the Imam (a)
- Chapter twenty: Divine leadership, its nobility and the rank of the divine leader
- Chapter twenty one: The marriage of the blessed Lady Fatimah (a)
- Chapter twenty two: Faith that is recognition of paradise, verbal confession and physical action
- Chapter twenty three: Debates with al-Ma'mun regarding the difference between family ('Itra) and nation
- Chapter twenty four: The man from Syria and his questions from the Commander of the Faithful (a) in the Kufa mosque
- Chapter twenty five: Zayd b. 'Ali
- Chapter twenty six: Rare traditions about various issues
- Chapter twenty seven: Harut and Marut
- Chapter twenty eight: Various traditions
- Chapter twenty nine: The characteristics of the Prophet (s)
- Chapter thirty: Various traditions
- Chapter thirty one: Al-Rida (a)
- Chapter thirty two: The reasons for various things
- Chapter thirty three: The reasons (behind the decrees) written in response to questions by Muhammad b. San'an
- Chapter thirty four: The reasons cited by al-Fazl b. Shadhan
- Chapter thirty five: What al-Rida (a) wrote for al-Ma'mun regarding pure Islam and the religious decrees
- Chapter thirty six: Al-Rida's (a) entry to Neyshabur to see al-Ma'mun
- Chapter thirty seven: What al-Rida (a) said upon leaving Marba'at Neyshabur to see al-Ma'mun
- Chapter thirty eight: A rare tradition
- Chapter thirty nine: The departure from Neyshabur towards Tus and Marv
- Chapter forty: The reasons why al-Rida (a) accepted the succession to the throne from al-Ma'mun, what went on, those who were displeased and those who were pleased
- Chapter forty one: Praying for rain on the request of al-Ma'mun, display of the Honorable and the Exalted God's power by fulfilling his request and the destruction of those who denied this
- Chapter forty two: The plans of al-Ma'mun for fending off the people from the meetings of al-Rida (a), belittling him, and the cursing of al-Ma'mun
- Chapter forty three: Poems about patience and silence in front of the ignorant, not treating friends with reproach, attracting the enemy so that he becomes a friend, and hiding secrets
- Chapter forty four: Al-Rida's (a) noble characteristics and worshiping
- Chapter forty five: What al-Ma'mun did to please al-Rida (a): his debates with the opponents regarding divine leadership and 'Ali's (a) nobility
- Chapter forty six: The proofs for the divine leaders (a), and the rejection of the boasters and those who believe in God turning over the affairs, may God damn them
- Chapter forty seven: Indications of the divine leadership of al-Rida (a)
- Chapter forty eight: The proof of al-Rida's (a) rightfulness due to the acceptance of his prayers by God, the Honorable, the Exalted, against Bakkar b. 'Abd allah b. Mos'ab b. Al-Zubayr b. Bakkar who had oppressed him
- Chapter forty nine: Proof of al-Rida's (a) rightfulness due to predicting that he (a) would not see Baghdad, and neither would Baghdad see him (a)
- Chapter fifty: Proof of al-Rida's (a) rightfulness due to the acceptance by God, the Honorable, the Exalted, of his prayers for the Barmakites
- Chapter fifty one: Proof of al-Rida's (a) rightfulness due to his prediction that he would be buried next to Harun al-Rashid
- Chapter fifty three: Al-Rida's (a) insight and his recognition of the faithful believers and the hypocrites
- Chapter fifty four: Al-Rida's (a) knowledge of all the languages
- Chapter fifty five: The proof of al-Rida's (a) rightfulness due to his replying to al-Hassan b. 'Ali al-Vosha's questions before he could ask them
- Chapter fifty six: Al-Rida's (a) answer to Abi Qorrah, a friend of the Catholic Archbishop
- Chapter fifty seven: What al-Rida (a) said on the subject of divine leadership to Yahya b. al-Dhahhak al-Samarqandi in the presence of al-Ma'mun
- Chapter fifty eight: What al-Rida (a) told his brother Zayd b. Musa when Zayd was being haughty in al-Ma'mun's presence and what al-Rida (a) said about mistreating the Shiites
- Chapter fifty nine: The reasons for which al-Ma'mun poisoned 'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a)
- Chapter sixty: Al-Rida's (a) appointment of his son Muhammad b. 'Ali (a) as the Imam and his successor
- Chapter sixty one: The martyrdom of al-Rida (a) due to being poisoned by al-Ma'mun
- Chapter sixty two: Another tradition on the death of al-Rida (a)
- Chapter sixty three: What Abu Salt al-Hirawi has narrated about al-Rida (a) being martyred with poisoned grapes
- Chapter sixty four: What (Abu Habib) Harthama b. A'yan has narrated about al-Rida (a) being martyred with poisoned pomegranates and grapes
- Chapter sixty five: An elegy recited about al-Rida (a)
- Chapter sixty six: The reward of visiting the shrine of al-Rida (a)
- Chapter sixty seven: The reward of visiting the shrine of Fatima, the daughter of Imam Musa b. Ja'far (a) in Qom
- Chapter sixty eight: Visiting al-Rida (a) in Tus
- Chapter sixty nine: What has become apparent for the people of our time from the blessings and signs of this place of martyrdom, and the fulfillment of prayers there.
"Uyun Akhbar al-Rida polishes the blight of sadness off the heart
never been anything to the world like it for the onlookers of the east and the west
and any knowledge in its parts suffice you
like the sun of guiding light which fulfills desires of the heart."
Commentaries and Glosses
Fifteen commentaries and many translations have been done on this book. Among the most important commentaries and glosses are:
- Lawami' al-anwar by al-Sayyid Ni'mat Allah al-Jaza'iri (d. 1112/1700-1)
- Farsi commentary by Shaykh Muhammad 'Ali Hazin Zahidi Gilani (d. 1181/1767-8)
- Commentary by Mawla Hadi Bunabi (d. 1281/1864-5) a student of Shaykh Murtada Ansari
- Farsi commentary by Sayyid 'Ali Asghar Shushtari
- Marginal notes of Sayyid Husayn Mujtahid Qazwini
- Glosses by al-Sayyid al-Husayn b. al-Hasan al-'Amili al-Karaki
This book has been translated into English by 'Ali Peiravi, and is published by Ansariyan Publications, Qom.
Other Books With the Same Title
- 'Uyun al-akhbar and 'Uyun sihah al-akhbar fi manaqib al-abrar, both written by Yahya b. Bitriq (7th/13th century).
- 'Uyun al-akhbar written by Abu Muhammad 'Abd al-Rahman b. Abi Bakr al-Naysaburi al-Razi.
- 'Uyun al-akhbar wa l-athar fi dhikr al-Nabi al-Mustafa al-mukhtar wa wasiyyat 'Ali b. Abi Talib qatil al-kuffar wa alih al-a'immat al-athar written by 'Imad al-Din Idris b. al-Hasan 'Abd allah al-Anaf.
- Ni'mat Allah Safari Furushani, Barrasi-ye do athar-e tarikhnegari-yi Shaykh Saduq
- Rijal al-Najashi, pp. 245 - 246.
- 'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a), vol. 1, p. 4.
- 'Uyun akbar al-Rida (a), trans by 'Ali Peiravi, (Table of Content).
- Al-Dhari'ah, vol. 15, p. 376.
- Al-Dhari'a, vol. 123, p. 375.
- Al-Dhari'a, vol. 15, p. 375.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from عیون اخبار الرضا in Farsi Wikishia.
- Agha Buzurg Tihrani, Al-Dhari'ah ila tasanif al-Shi'ah, Dar al-Adwa', Beirut, 1403/1982.
- Najashi, Ahmad b. 'Ali al-, Rijal al-Najashi, Jami'ah al-Mudarrisin, 1416/1995.
- Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali al-, 'Uyun Akhbar al-Rida (a), Mu'assisat al-A'lami li l-Matbu'at, 1404/1983.
- 'Uyun akbar al-Rida (a), translated by 'Ali Peiravi (PhD), edited by Lisa Zaynab Morgan, Qom: Ansariyan Publication, 2006.