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Al-Husayn b. al-Imam al-Kazim (a)

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Descendant of Imam
Al-Husayn b. al-Imam al-Kazim (a)
Husayn b. Musa; Tabas.jpg
Well-Known As Ala' al-Din, al-Mafqud
Father Musa b. Ja'far (a)
Mother Umm walad
Place(s) of Residence Medina
Children Abu al-Qasim and 'Ubayd Allah
Place of Burial Tabas or Shiraz
Age 24 or 25

Al-Ḥusayn b. Mūsā b. Jaʿfar (a) (Arabic:الحسين بن موسی بن جعفر) was one of the children of Imam Musa al-Kazim (a) and the brother of Imam al-Rida (a). He was among transmitters of hadiths and transmitted hadiths from Imam al-Kazim (a), Imam al-Rida (a), and his mother. According to a report, he loved Imam al-Jawad (a) more than other children of Imam al-Kazim (a). In some cities of Iran, there are shrines attributed to him, the most important one of which are in Shiraz and Tabas. In Shiraz, he is known as Ala' al-Din Husayn and in Tabas, he is known as Mafqud.

His Lineage and Origin

Father of al-Husayn was Imam Musa b. Ja'far (a) and his mother was umm walad (concubine).[1] In Bihar al-anwar, 'Allama Majlisi has narrated a report based on which his mother is considered among transmitters of hadiths too. His titles were Mafqud[2] and 'Ala' al-Din.[3] Maybe, the title of 'Ala' al-Din has been attributed to Husayn b. Musa (a) in late 4th century AH when adding "al-Din" to names has been common.[4]

Some Imamzadas Buried in Iran
City/Province From Imam's Descendant Imamzada's Name
Isfahan-Kashan Imam al-Baqir Ali b. Muhammad al Mashhad Ardehal
Ray Imam al-Hasan 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani (Shrine of Abd al-Azim al-Hasani)
Tehran-Ray Imam al-Kazim Hamza b. al-Imam al-Kazim
Fars-Shiraz Imam al-Kazim Husayn b. Musa b. Ja'far
Fars-Shiraz Imam al-Kazim Muhammad b. Musa b. Ja'far
Qazvin Imam al-Rida Imamzada Husayn
Qom Imam al-Jawad Musa al-Mubarqa'
Qom Imam al-Sadiq Ali b. Ja'far
Gachsaran ♦ Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Hakima bt. Imam al-Kazim
Saveh Markazi Ishaq b. Imam al-Kazim
Shahreza Isfahan Shahreza
Isfahan Imam al-Sadiq Ali b. Zayn al-Abidin
Isfahan Imam al-Kazim Imamzada Zaynabiyya
Isfahan Imam al-Rida Imamzada Ja'far
Isfahan-Kashan Imam al-Jawad Ahmad b. Musa al-Mubarqa'
Isfahan-Kashan Imam al-Kazim Aqa Ali Abbas
Isfahan-Aran va Bidgol Imam al-Sadiq Hilal b. Ali
Kan-Tehran Imam al-Hasan Imamzada Dawud
Tehran-Tajrish Imam al-Sajjad Imamzada Salih
Razawi Khorasan-Nishapur Imam al-Sajjad Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Zayd
South Khorasan-Tabas Imam al-Kazim Husayn b. Musa
Khuzestan-Shushtar Imam al-Sajjad Imamzada Abd Allah
Khuzestan-Dezful Imam al-Kazim Muhammad b. Musa
Khuzestan-Shushtar Imam al-Sajjad Muhammad b. Zayd b. Ali
Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari - Shaykh Shaban Imam al-Kazim Sayyid Baha' al-Din Muhammad
Lorestan-Aligudarz Imam al-Hasan Husayn b. Husayn b. Ishaq
Fars-Shiraz Imam al-Kazim Ali b. Hamza
Fars-Fasa Imam AliAbbas b. Ali Imamzada Isma'il
Fars-Farashband Imam al-Kazim Muhammad b. Hasan
Yazd Imam al-Sadiq Ja'far b. Ali
Semnan Imam al-Kazim Imamzada Yahya
Semnan Imam al-Sadiq Ali b. Ja'far
Kermanshah Imam Kazim Ubayd Allah b. Musa
Gilan-Astana Ashrafiya Imam al-Hasan Jalal al-Din Ashraf
Rasht Imam Ali ♦ Muhammad b. Hanafiyya Imamzada Hashim
Mazandaran-Amol Imam al-Hasan Imamzada Hashim
Hormozgan-Rudan Imam al-Kazim Sayyid Sultan Muhammad
Hamadan Imam al-Hadi Shahzada Husayn
Hamadan Imam al-Hasan Imamzada Muhsin
Hamadan Imam al-Kazim Imamzada Abd Allah


His Position in Rijal and Hadith

Some scholars in rijal and hadith have considered Husayn b. Musa (a) among reliable transmitters of hadiths. He transmitted hadiths from his father, Imam Musa al-Kazim (a) and his own brother, Imam al-Rida (a).[5]

There are hadiths about "permissibility of Friday ghusl on Thursday in some cases",[6] "merits and benefits of putting henna",[7] "fear of the believers",[8] "financial and social situation of Ja'far b. 'Umar al-Alawi in the future",[9] "God's mercy in the actions' log of the believers",[10] "benefitting to the children of the Prophet (s)",[11] "paying workers"[12] the name of Husayn b. Musa (a) exist in the chain of their narration.

Also, in Qurb al-isnad, there is a hadith according to which, Imam al-Jawad (a) was asked which one of your uncles do more goodness toward you and he (a) answered, Husayn. Imam al-Rida (a) approved this when he (a) heard it.[13] Husayn considered Imam al-Jawad (a) the successor of the Prophet (s) and att he presence of Ali b. Ja'far (a), defended this idea in an argument with an Arab man. In another narration, he asks Imam al-Jawad (a) about his ring and Imam (a) answers, "This is the ring of prophet Sulayman (a)."[14]

His Martyrdom

At the time of martyrdom, he was almost a young man of 24 or 25 years old. However, another report suggests that he was martyred at the age of 13,[15] but historical evidences do not approve of it.

There are different reports about the way he was martyred.

Place of Burial

The attributed tomb of Husayn b. Musa in Shiraz
he attributed tomb of Husayn b. Musa (known as Husayn al-Mafqud) in Tabas

There are different opinions about the place of his burial. Some believe that he passed away in Kufa. Some consider Shiraz as the place of his burial. Some other say that he is buried in Tabas. In addition to Shiraz and Tabas, there are shrines attributed to him in Kerman, Behbahan, Qazvin, Sari and Kajur.[16]

Shiraz

On the account that Husayn b. Musa (a) was buried in Shiraz, he accompanied Shah Chiragh and his other brothers in the caravan that was going from Media to Khorasan to meet Imam al-Rida (a). The date of their departure is not exactly known. Given a hadith in Bihar al-anwar, the caravan departed for Iran after the martyrdom of Imam al-Rida (a), since Husayn b. Musa defended the Imamate of Imam al-Jawad (a) in Medina after Imam al-Rida's martyrdom.

The ruler of Fars tried to block the caravan's way to Khorasan, which led to a serious conflict and the martyrdom of the brothers. Sayyid Ala' al-Din Husayn hid in a garden, but once he was identified, he was martyred. According to al-Majlisi's report Sayyid Ala' al-Din hid after the martyrdom of his brother Ahmad b. Musa (a). When he was going to the garden, he was identified as being one of Banu Hashim and was murdered there.

According to Hamd Allah Mustawfi, Husayn b. 'Ali was buried in Shiraz. The view was held by Junayd Shirazi, 'Allama Majlisi, Bahr al-'Ulum in his book, Tuhfat al-'alim fi khutbat al-ma'alim, and Rawdati. His mausoleum is located in a few hundred meters away from the shrine of Shah Chiragh, and is visited by people of Shiraz and lovers of Ahl al-Bayt. The mausoleum is highly respected by people of Shiraz. It is frequently visited and crowded every Monday. In his Bihar al-anwar, Majlisi says,

Ala' al-Din Husayn's mausoleum was hidden until the 8th/14th century. When Qutlugh was the ruler of Shiraz, his gardener saw a light going to the garden. He informed Qutlugh, and after a search, they found a grave in which there was an awesome, gorgeous, and glorious corpse. The corpse had a volume of the Qur'an in one hand, and a sword in another. Through evidence they found out that the grave was Husayn b. Musa's. Thus they built a dome and a portico around the grave.

Before 'Allama Majlisi, the story was recounted in Shadhdh al-azar by Junayd Shirazi and Shiraznama by Zarkub.

Tabas

There is a mausoleum attributed to Husayn b. Musa in Tabas as well. There is a letter from Imam al-Rida (a) to the ruler of Tabas in which the Imam talks about the loss of one of his brothers called Husayn in Tabas and asks the ruler to find him.

There were sadat living in Tabas who traced their ancestry back to the lost Husayn. In his Tahdhib al-ansab wa nihayat al-alqab, 'Ubaydili talks about these sadat who ask him about their genealogy but he could not answer because their ancestry is not known. Abu Nasr Sahl b. 'Abd Allah b. Dawud al-Bukhari traces them to Ahmad b. Musa, and not Husayn b. Musa.

His Children

Some scholars of genealogy believe that no children left after Husayn b. Musa (a).[17] However, some others including Jalma b. 'Inaba in 'Umdat al-talib and 'Abd al-Rahman Kiya in Siraj al-ansab mentioned Abu al-Qasim and 'Ubayd Allah among his children.[18] Some other sources have listed 'Abd Allah and Muhammad among his children as well.[19]

Notes

  1. Rajāʾī, al-Kawākib al-mashriqīyya, vol. 1, p. 724.
  2. Rajāʾī, al-Kawākib al-mashriqīyya, vol. 1, p. 724.
  3. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 48, p. 312.
  4. ʿIrfānmanish, Muhājirān-i Musawī, p. 275.
  5. See: Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, vol. 2, p. 353; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 76; vol. 6, p. 506.
  6. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 3, p. 42.
  7. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 6, p. 509.
  8. Ibn ʿUqda, Faḍāil Amīr al-muʾminīn, p. 116.
  9. Ṣadūq, ʿUyūn akhbār al-Riḍā, vol. 2, p. 208.
  10. Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 571.
  11. Ṭūsī, al-Amālī, p. 355.
  12. Ibn Ṭāwūs, Ṭuraf min al-anbāʾ wa l-manāqib, p. 187.
  13. Ḥimyarī, Qurb al-isnād, p. 378.
  14. Ibn Ṭāwūs, Saʿd al-suʿūd, p. 236.
  15. Khānmalik, Baḥr al-ansāb, p. 55.
  16. ʿIrfānmanish, Muhājirān-i Musawī, p. 280-283.
  17. Zarandī, Maʿārij al-wuṣūl, p. 153.
  18. Rajāʾī, al-Kawākib al-mashriqīyya, vol. 1, p. 724.
  19. ʿAbīdlī, Tahdhīb al-ansāb, p. 166.

References

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  • Ḥimyarī, ʿAbd Allāh b. Jaʿfar al-. Qurb al-isnād. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1413 AH.
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  • Ibn ʿUqda, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Faḍāil Amīr al-muʾminīn. Qom: Dalīl-i Mā, 1424 AH.
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  • Kulaynī, Muḥammad b. Yaʿqūb al-. Al-Kāfī. Edited by Ghaffārī wa Ākhūndī. Fourth edition. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1407 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Second edition. Tehran: Islāmīyya, 1363 Sh.
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