Priority: c, Quality: b
Without references

Al-Burhan fi tafsir al-Qur'an (book)

From WikiShia
Jump to: navigation, search
Al-Burhan fi tafsir al-Qur'an
Author al-Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani
Language Arabic
Subject exegesis of Qur'an
Publisher Different publications


Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān (Arabic: البرهان فی تفسیر القرآن) is one of the most important Shi'ite narrative exegesis of Qur'an by al-Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani. The author has discussed different issues like Islamic sciences, stories, nabawi hadiths (hadiths that narrated from the Prophet (s)) and the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a). Al-Bahrani was an Akhbari and his exegesis was written in an Akhbari manner. Some of the exegetists have criticized his work.

Author and Motivation

Al-Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani, well known as al-'Allama al-Bahrani was one of the faqihs, traditionalists and Shi'a exegetists in 11th/17th century and early 12th/18th century.

In the preface of his book, he stated that his motivation for writing the book was presenting a source for understanding interpretational theories and the teachings of Ahl al-Bayt (a) in ta'wil and secrets of the Qur'an.

Structure and the Manner of Compiling

Al-'Allama al-Bahrani has gathered many hadiths of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) in the book. He states in his preface:

"This book will help you know about many secrets of the Qur'an. Some of the religious sciences, stories, life of prophets and the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a) will be understandable for you by this book. … I have gathered valid and trustworthy hadiths from hadith collections whose compilers are among authentic scholars. I have narrated most of the hadiths from Shi'a transmitters but in the case that Sunni hadiths were in correspondence with Shi'a's or in the case that a hadith of Sunnis was about the virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a), I used their hadiths as well. I also mentioned some hadiths from Ibn 'Abass in interpreting Qur'an because he was pupil of Imam 'Ali (a). "

His manner in this exegesis is as follows: first, he mentions the name of the Sura, the place that it was revealed, virtue of the Sura and the number of the verses. Then he refers to verses that have especial hadiths in explaining their content and discusses about those hadiths.

Al-'Allama al-Bahrani in al-Burhan sufficed to mention the hadiths. he wrote the chain of transmitters and the hadith of Sunnis at the end of each chapter.

He considered his book as a statement of the Ta'wil of the verses of the Qur'an and by Ta'wil, he meant the hadiths that are narrated from infallibles. He also mentioned the virtue of infallibles. He didn't add any comment on the hadiths but in his long introduction, he presented his views and analysis on the interpretational theories. There is another introduction for this book by Abu l-Hasan Sharif al-'Amili al-Isfahani (d. 1138/1725 or 1140/1727) under the title Mir'at al-anwar wa mishkat al-asrar.

Al-'Allama al-Bahrani presented his ideas on interpretation and Qur'anic quests in 16 chapters in introduction. He believed that the Qur'an exclusively should be interpreted by Imams (a). Even though that his notion of interpretation is close to Ta'wil, in the 6th chapter, he expressly prevented other people to interpret the Qur'an. In the 15th chapter, he stated some points on the unity of the Qur'an and 'Itrat. He also emphasized on the inward meaning of Qur'an and on the belief that its knowledge is in the hand of Ahl al-Bayt (a). In the last chapter, he mentioned some of the sources of the book and introduced some terms like Nasikh wa Mansukh, Muhkam wa Mutashabih, 'Am wa Khas, Taqdim wa Ta'khir but he didn't present any definition about these terms. Thus, he began to start the exegesis. The atmosphere of the book is proving the rightfulness of Ahl al-Bayt (a) and introducing the virtues of them.

Sources

The author used following hadiths collections in his book:

  1. Tafsir al-Qummi
  2. Tafsir al-'ayyashi
  3. Basa'ir al-darajat, by Muhammad b. Hasan al-Saffar
  4. Al-Kafi, by al-Kulayni
  5. Qurb al-asnad, by 'Abd allah b. Ja'far al-Himyari
  6. Al-Irshad, by al-Shaykh al-Mufid
  7. Al-Ikhtisas, by al-Shaykh al-Mufid
  8. Al-'Amali by al-Shaykh al-Mufid
  9. Kitab al- zuhd, by Husayn b. Sa'id al-Ahwazi
  10. Kitab Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilali
  11. Kitab Ibn Shadhan
  12. The book of 'Ali b. Ja'far that contains his questions from Imam al-Kazim (a)
  13. Kitab man la yahduruh al-faqih, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  14. Kamal al-din wa tamam al-ni'ma, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  15. Ma'ani al-akhbar, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  16. 'Ilal al-sharayi', by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  17. Bisharat al-Shi'a, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  18. Sifat al-Shi'a, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  19. Al-Tawhid, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  20. 'Uyun akhbar al-rida, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  21. Al-Khisal, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  22. Thawab al-a'mal wa 'iqab al-a'mal, by al-Shaykh al-Saduq
  23. Al-Tahdhib, by al-Shaykh al-Tusi
  24. Al-Istibsar, by al-Shaykh al-Tusi
  25. Al-'Amali, by al-Shaykh al-Tusi
  26. Khasa'is al-'a'ima, by al-Sayyid al-Radi
  27. Al-Manaqib al-fakhira fi l-'itra al-tahira, by al-Sayyid al-Radi
  28. Al-Mahasin, by Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Khalid al-Barqi
  29. Majma' al-Bayan, by al-Shaykh al-Tabrisi
  30. Jawami' al-jami', by al-Shaykh al-Tabrisi
  31. Misbah al-shari'a, the hadiths in this book has been attributed to Imam al-Sadiq (a)
  32. Minhaj al-haqq wa l-yaqin, Wali b. Ni'mat Allah Husayni Radawi Ha'iri
  33. Ta'wil al-ayat al-bahira fi l-'itra al-tahira, al-Shaykh Sharaf al-Din al-Najafi
  34. Ma anzal min al-qur'an fi ahl al-bayt (a), al-Shaykh Muhammad b. 'Abbas b. Marwan b. Mahyar, well-known as Ibn Juham
  35. Tuhfa al-ikhwan, by Sayyid b. Tawus
  36. Al-Tara'if, by Sayyid b. Tawus
  37. Rabi' al-abrar, by al-Zamakhshari
  38. Al-Kashshaf fi tafsir al-Qur'an, by al-Zamakhshari
  39. Majmu'a waram, by al-Shaykh Abu l-Husayn Waram
  40. Al-Manaqib, by Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Shahr Ashub
  41. Al-Ihtijaj, by al-Shaykh Ahmad b. 'Ali b. Abi Talib al-Tabrisi
  42. Kamil al-ziyarat, by Ja'far b. Muhammad b. Qulawayh
  43. Mashariq anwar al-yaqin, by al-Shaykh Rajab al-Barsi

And some other sources that have been mentioned in different chapters of the book.

Criticisms

Muhammad Mahdi al-Asifi writes:

"Despite his ample efforts in al-Burhan exegesis, there are some unauthentic and distorted hadiths which convey ideas of exaggeration (al-Ghuluw). It is more likely that the author didn't mean to refine unauthentic hadiths or he meant but it wasn't enough. He has used the sources that are accused for being distorted and has narrated some hadiths that have unreliable chain of transmitters and incoherent content. So, it can be concluded that al-Burhan is a beneficial scholarly effort for researchers who are familiar with the texts and are knowledgeable about reliable and coherent hadiths and are able to differentiate between authentic and unauthentic hadiths. The fact that this book contains some unauthentic hadiths doesn't mean that it is a worthless book but it is like Bihar al-anwar by al-'Allama al-Majlisi which has some unauthentic hadiths, but given this quality, it is a great work that is a huge help to Shiite library. However, gathering the hadiths is the first step and after that, the second step begins which is refinement the hadiths and differentiating the authentic and unauthentic narrations. The third step is to extract general rules and fundamentals of the interpretational approach of Ahl al-Bayt (a). Without completing all the three steps, it is not possible to benefit from the interpretational hadiths of Ahl al-Bayt (a)."

Muhammad Hadi Ma'rifat in his al-Tafsir wa l-mufassirun states:

"Al-Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani is one of the accomplished traditionalists who gathered hadiths. He didn't present any idea about the acceptance, rejection or compromise of the hadiths that are against reason or other narrations. "

Sayyid Muhammad 'Ali Ayazi:

"The author is one of the Akhbaris who believes that interpreting Qur'an is permissible only through the hadiths of Ahl al-Bayt (a) and interpretation through reasoning, ijtihad and spiritual taste is forbidden."

Versions

Manuscripts

  1. Manuscript of the library of Waziri, Yazd, no 5998
  2. Manuscript of the central library of University of Tehran, no 844
  3. Manuscript of Dar al-Kutub of Cairo, no 19109
  4. Manuscript of the library of Faydiyya in Qom, (tafsir 16-40-39)
  5. Manuscript of the public library of Ayatollah al-Hakim, Iraq, no 690
  6. Manuscript of the library of the faculty of literature of the University of Tehran, no 457
  7. Manuscript of the library of the faculty of theology of the University of Tehran, no 20b & 25b
  8. Manuscript of the library of holy shrine of the Imam al-Rida (a) in Mashhad, no 83-91
  9. Manuscript of the library of the higher school of Shahid Mutahhari in Tehran, no 2057

Lithography and Printing

Beside old publications, al-Burhan has been published a number of times:

  1. 'Isma'iliyan institute, published in 5 Volumes, Qom
  2. Al-Wafa institute, published in 4 volumes, Beirut
  3. 'Islammiya bookstore, in 5 volumes, Tehran
  4. Al-Risala institute, on 1403 AH
  5. Bi'that institute, in 5 volumes, Tehran, with an introduction of al-Shaykh Muhammad Mahdi al-Asifi

References