Akhlaq-i Muhtashami (book)
|Author||Nasir al-Din al-Tusi|
|Original title||اخلاق محتشمی|
|Published||1377 SH., Tehran|
Akhlāq-i Muḥtashamī (Persian:اخلاق محتشمی) is an ethical book written by Nasir al-Din al-Tusi in Persian containing different issues in ethics. Many advice, maxims, wise words and analogies have been mentioned in this book. This book is more than more practical than theoretical.
This book has forty chapters in different fields of ethics. Three other treatises are brought after the forty chapters.
About the Author
- Main article: Nasir al-Din al-Tusi
Muhammad b. Muhammad Hasan al-Tusi known as Khwajih Nasir al-Din al-Tusi (672/1274) was among Muslim influential thinkers. He was the author of many books and treatises in ethical sciences, logic, philosophy, Kalam, mathematics and astronomy, such as Akhlaq-i Nasiri, Awsaf al-ashraf, Asas al-iqtibas, Sharh al-Isharat, Tajrid al-I'tiqad, Jami' al-hisab, the famous book of Zij Ilkhani and al-Tadhkira fi 'ilm al-hay'a on astronomy. He also established the observatory of Marahgeh and the library of Marahgeh holding 400 thousand volumes of books.
Naming and Structure
It became famous as Akhlaq-i Muhtashami because Khwajih Nasir wrote this book for Khwajih Nasir al-Din 'Abd al-Rahim b. Abi Mansur Muhtasham Quhistan.
Content of the Book
In addition to verses and hadiths, Akhlaq-i Muhtashami contains views and sayings of Budharjumihr, Anushirvan, Roshanak, daughter of Dara and also Socrates, Pluto, Aristotle, Diogenes, Alexander, Pythagoras, and others. Khwajih Nasir tried to gather all select and right opinions about theoretical ethics from all sources available at his time, whether from the glorious Qur'an, prophetic hadiths, Sufis and ascetics' beliefs, ancient Iranian thoughts and Indian and Greek philosophers, and especially benefitted from the sayings of Ikhwan al-Safa and Isma'ili inviters.
In the book, especially in the second and third chapters, he has shown his belief in Shiism and his unprejudiced opinion in mentioning the opinions of philosophers is a reason for his philosophical manner, open-mindedness and following scientific methods in writing the book.
The forty chapters of Akhlaq-i Muhtashami begin with the first chapter on religion and knowing the Creator and end with the fortieth chapter on stories, wonders, maxims and pieces of advice.
After the forty chapters, three other works are brought as following:
- Tarjuma al-adab al-wajiz li l-walad al-saghir written by Ibn Muqaffa' and translated by Khwajih Nasir al-Din al-Tusi containing pieces of advice and instructions to children and youths about manners of life.
- Risala dar tawalla wa tabarra, in which Khwaja al-Tusi analyses the issue of tawalla and tabarra [Befriending and rejection] – which is among the signs of Shia – in a philosophical analysis. An important point is that the writing style of this treatise is much different from his other treatises and it is more a scientific text than a literary text, because in this treatise, the author avoids any approach leading to pretention and even avoids repeated and unfavorable additional comments.
- Maqala fi fada'il Amir al-Mu'minin 'Ali (a) in which, many hadiths about the virtues of Imam Ali (a) are collected. One of such hadiths is that according to a hadith from the Prophet (s), Imam Ali (a) and the Prophet Noah (a), the Prophet Abraham (a), the Prophet Moses (a) and the Prophet Jesus (a) are at the same rank.
Chapters of the Book
This book has 40 chapters on different religious and moral issues and contains many maxims and examples.
- on religion and knowing the Creator
- on knowing prophethood and Imamate
- on friendship and enmity and rejection
- on unity and keeping away from arrogance and hypocrisy
- on jihad and sacrifice in the way of God
- on wisdom and knowledge and caring about actions
- on obedience, worship and its benefits
- on supplication, charity and its benefits
- on God-wariness and ascesis
- on gratitude and patience
- on God's contentment and submission
- on tawakkul
- on act of goodness and avoiding the evil
- on keeping away from oppression
- on criticism of this world
- on turning away from this world and desiring about the hereafter
- on the harms of accumulating wealth
- on the harms of greed
- on the benefits of poverty over wealth
- on trustworthiness and avoiding betrayal
- on truthfulness and avoiding lying
- on the fruits of silence and keeping the tongue
- on the harms of the mistakes of tongue
- on goodness of temper and honorable characteristics
- on forbearance, forgiveness and controlling anger
- on the harms of envy and hostility
- on humbleness
- on criticism of arrogance and self-conceit
- on the merits of generosity and sacrifice
- on the vices of niggardliness
- on bravery and resistance
- on chastity and suppressing vain desires
- on friendship and honesty
- on associating with scholars and the good
- on avoiding assembly of the evil and the ignorant
- on characteristics of Sayyids and the good
- on opinion and tactic
- on seeking happiness and mentioning the good
- on the example, evidences, manners and advice
- on stories, wonders, moral points and advice
Tarjumat al-adab al-wajiz lil-walad al-saghir
Risala dar tawalla wa tabarra
Maqala fi fada'il Amir al-Mu'minin Ali (a)
- The material for writing this article has been mainly taken from اخلاق محتشمی (کتاب) in Farsi wikishia.