The best time for saying tasbih is before sunrise and sunset, and the most common formula for it is "subhanallah" (Arabic: سبحان الله, Glory be to Allah).
Tasbih is an Arabic infinitive derived from the word "subhan" (Arabic: سبحان) which means "exalted". In Islamic context, tasbih means exaltation of God from every kind of weakness and need.
Sometimes tasbih come together with praise (hamd) in Qur'an, such as praise of angles, thunder, and etc.[Note 1] Exegetes of Qur'an believe that this implies that creatures cannot say tasbih by themselves, so they should praise God for his kindness for letting them say tasbih..
According to Qur'an, God Himself is the first who does tasbih[Note 2], after Him the ones who are with Him[Note 3]. Also angels say tasbih with "hamd"[Note 4] or without it[Note 5]; it is mostly interpreted as prayer.
In other verses, it is commanded to tasbih in some special times, like before sunrise and sunset[Note 10], midnight[Note 11], in duration of night and day[Note 12], and after sajda[Note 13]. Among them tasbih is specially emphasized in sunrise and sunset, so in time of alteration of day and night which matches the concept of passing and exaltation. Some believe that it means prayer which is the best type of tasbih.
The most obvious type of tasbih is saying "subhan Allah" (Arabic: سبحان الله, exalted be Allah)
Dhikr of Ruku' and Sajda
- Dhikr of ruku': "subhan-a rabbi-a l-'azim-i wa bi-hamdih" (Arabic: سبحان ربّي العظيم و بحمده, exalted be my lord the great and I praise him)
- Dhikr of sajda: "subhan-a rabbi-a l-a'la wa bi-hamdih" (Arabic: سبحان ربّي الأعلی و بحمده, exalted be my lord the highest and I praise him)
Tasbihat al-Arba'a (the Four Tasbihs)
- Main article: Tasbihat al-Arba'a
In Islamic tradition, usually tasbih means dhikr of "subhan Allah"; but in its extended usage this term includes other dhikrs such as "Allah-u akbar" (Arabic: أللهُ أکبر, Allah is greater) (takbir), "la ilah-a illa Allah" (Arabic: لا إِلهَ إلّا الله, there's no god except Allah) (tahlil), and "al-hamd-u li-Allah" (Arabic: ألحَمدُ لله, the praise is for Allah) (tahmid). "Tasbihat al-arba'a" which is one of mandatory recites of prayer, consists of these four dhikrs.
Tasbih of Lady Fatima (a)
- Main article: Tasbih of Lady Fatima (a)
Tasbih of Lady Fatima (a) is one of the most famous Shi'a dhikrs. Many hadiths emphasize tasbih of lady Fatima (a) and state many virtues for it. Tasbih of lady Fatima (a) is one of the most important ta'qibs of prayer and rites before sleep. This dhikr consists of 34 times "Allah akbar" (Arabic: الله اکبر, Allah is greater), 33 times "al-hamd li-Allah" (Arabic: الحمد لله, the praise is for Allah), and 33 times "subhan Allah" (Arabic: سبحان الله, exalted be Allah).
- Main article: Misbaha
In Farsi language, a string of beads made of clay, stone, wood, plastic, etc. is also tasbih which is held in hand for counting dhikr or doing istikhara.
Misbaha usually consists of 101 beads in three parts of 33 beads. These parts are separated by two beads with different shapes than others. The number of beads and their partition is for compliance with tasbih of Lady Fatima (a).
- Main article: Musabbihat
- Al-Khalil b. Ahmad, al-'Ayn, Vol. 3, P.151-152; Al-Tusi, al-Tibyan, Vol. 6, P. 444; Al-Raghib, al-Mufradat, P. 221; Al-Razi, Tafsir al-kabir, Vol.2, P. 188; Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-'arab, under the word "sabh"
- For example, Quran 13:13
- Al-Razi, Tafsir al-kabir, Vol. 2, P. 188; Tabataba'i, al-Mizan, Vol. 5, P. 111
- For example, Quran 36:36
- Quran 7:206
- For example, Quran, 2:30
- For example, Quran, 2:32
- Al-Tabari, Jami' al-bayan, Vol.1, P. 166-167; Al-Razi, Tafsir al-kabir, Vol. 2, P. 189
- Quran 17:44
- Quran 21:79
- Quran 22:18; Tabataba'i, al-Mizan, Vol. 13, P. 110-112
- For example, Quran 33:42
- For example, Quran 20:130
- Quran 52:48
- For example, Quran 76:26
- Quran 50:40
- Al-Maybudi, Kashf al-asrar, Vol.1, P.134
- Al-Nawawi, al-Adhkar, P.282-285; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, Vol.87, P. 251, 254 287, Vol.88, P.122
- Al-Saduq, Thawab al-a'mal, P.196-197; Al-Hilli, Nihayat al-ahkam, Vo.1 ,511-512; Al-Shahid al-Thani, al-Rawdat al-bahiyya, Vol.1, P.285; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, Vol.76, P.205,Vol.86,P.6, Vol.102,P.89,240,260
- Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar,Vol.1, P.171, Vol.2,P.147
- Qarib, Tabyin al-lughat, Vol.1, P.524
- The Thunder celebrates His praise, and the angels [too], in awe of Him, and He releases the thunderbolts and strikes with them whomever He wishes. Yet they dispute concerning Allah, though He is great in might. (Quran 13:13)
- Immaculate is He who has created all the kinds of what the earth grows, and of themselves, and of what they do not know. (Quran 36:36)
- Indeed those who are [stationed] near your Lord do not disdain to worship Him. They glorify Him and prostrate to Him. (Quran 7:206)
- When your Lord said to the angels, 'Indeed I am going to set a viceroy on the earth,' they said, 'Will You set in it someone who will cause corruption in it, and shed blood, while we celebrate Your praise and proclaim Your sanctity?' He said, 'Indeed I know what you do not know.'
- They said, 'Immaculate are You! We have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed You are the All-knowing, the All-wise.'
- The seven heavens glorify Him, and the earth [too], and whoever is in them. There is not a thing but celebrates His praise, but you do not understand their glorification. Indeed He is all-forbearing, all-forgiving. (Quran 17:44)
- ... And We disposed the mountains and the birds to glorify [Us] with David, and We have been the doer [of such things]. (Quran 21:79)
- Have you not regarded that to Allah prostrates whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, the moon, and the stars, the mountains, the trees, and the animals and many of mankind?... (Quran 22:18)
- And glorify Him morning and evening. (Quran 33:42)
- So be patient with what they say, and celebrate the praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before the sunset, and glorify Him in watches of the night and at the day’s ends, that you may be pleased. (Quran 20:130)
- So submit patiently to the judgement of your Lord, for indeed you fare before Our eyes. And celebrate the praise of your Lord when you rise. (Quran 52:48)
- And worship Him for a watch of the night and glorify Him the night long. (Quran 76:26)
- And glorify Him through part of the night and after the prostrations. (Quran 50:40)
- The material for this article is mainly taken from تسبیح in Farsi Wikishia.
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