Laylat al-Qadr (Arabic: لَیلَة القَدر; Night of the Measure, Night of the Destiny) is the night of descending the Qur'an and the most sacred night in the year based on Islamic teachings. In the Qur'an, Laylat al-Qadr is mentioned in two Suras: Sura al-Qadr and Sura al-Dukhan.
The exact date of Laylat al-Qadr is unknown. However, according to many traditions, it is in the month of Ramadan. Shi'a believe that it is whether the eve of 19th or 21st or 23rd of the month of Ramadan. Majority of Shi'a emphasis on the eve of 23rd and majority of Sunni Muslims mark 27th of the month of Ramadan as Laylat al-Qadr.
On these nights, Shi'a follow their Imams (a) in staying awake the whole night, reciting the Qur'an, praying and performing other rituals. The anniversary of Imam 'Ali's martyrdom at 21st of Ramadan has increased the importance of these days among Shi'a. According to hadiths, Laylat al-Qadr is not only for the Prophet's time, rather there is Laylat al-Qadr in every year. Based on these hadiths, Shi'a demonstrated that there must be a living Imam so that the angels who descend on that night would descend on him, an Imam with similar characteristics as of the Prophet (s).
Ziyarah 'Ashura' • al-Warith • Amin Allah • al-Jami'a al-Kabira • Al Yasin
Takbir • Tahmid • Tahlil • Tasbih • Tasbih of Lady Fatima (a) • Salawat • al-Yunusiyya • Istighfar
al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya • Mafatih al-jinan • Misbah al-mutihajjid • Iqbal al-a'mal • Miftah al-falah
|Days and Months|
Laylat al-Qadr • 15th Sha'ban • 'Arafa • Ramadan • Rajab • Dhu l-Hijja
Some reasons have been offered for its naming:
- It is said that it was called al-Qadr because the annual destiny of every person will be determined by God, as it is mentioned in Qur'an 44:4: "every definitive matter is resolved in it" and also in many hadiths that indicate the destiny of a year for everyone including the deeds, sustenance, births, deaths, etc. is determined at this night.
- Some say that if one stay awake at this night, one will reach a high state.
- Some have said that it was called al-Qadr because it is a grand and high-value night, as the Qur'an was revealed at this night to the Prophet's (s) heart by an archangel.
Other names such as "Laylat al-'Azama" (Arabic:ليلة العظمة; night of the greatness) and "Laylat al-Sharaf" (Arabic:ليلة الشرف; night of the honor) have also be mentioned for this night.
According to the Islamic teachings, Laylat al-Qadr has a special sacredness and holiness. At this night the destiny of the coming year will be determined.
Occurrence of some events at this night has increased its importance. The whole Qur'an was sent down on the Prophet's (s) heart at this night as it is mentioned in Surat al-Qadr:
- "Indeed We sent it (the Qur'an) down on the Night of Qadr."
Exegetes of Qur'an believe that the verses of Sura al-Qadr connote that Laylat al-Qadr is repeated every year and it is not the only night that the Qur'an was sent down to the Prophet (s), or the ones in the Prophet's (s) time. In addition, many hadiths, which are about to be Mutawatir, support this idea.
According to some hadiths, Laylat al-Qadr is one of the blessings of God to the Islamic nation (umma). The Prophet (s) said "Allah has bestowed the Night of Qadr to my umma and non of the past nations have been blessed with this."
In the Qur'an
Sura al-Qadr, the 97th sura of Qur'an is about Lalyat al-Qadr:
بِسمِ الله الرَّحمنِ الرَّحِیم
إنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِی لَیلَةِ الْقَدْرِ (۱) وَمَا أَدْرَاک مَا لَیلَةُ الْقَدْرِ (۲) لَیلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَیرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ (۳) تَنَزَّلُ الْمَلَائِکةُ وَالرُّوحُ فِیهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِم مِّن کلِّ أَمْرٍ (۴) سَلَامٌ هِی حَتَّی مَطْلَعِ الْفَجْرِ (۵)
In the Name of God the All Merciful the Ever Merciful
Indeed We sent it down on the Night of Qadr (1) What will show you what is the night of Qadr? (2) The night of Qadr is better than a thousand months (3) In it the angles and the Spirit will descend by the leave of their Lord, with every command (4) It is peaceful until the rising of the dawn (5)
|— Quran 97|
Also, the few beginning verses of Surat al-Dukhan (44) are about Laylat al-Qadr:
بِسمِ الله الرَّحمنِ الرَّحِیم
حم (۱) وَالْکتَابِ الْمُبِینِ (۲) إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِی لَیلَةٍ مُّبَارَکةٍ إِنَّا کنَّا مُنذِرِینَ (۳) فِیهَا یفْرَقُ کلُّ أَمْرٍ حَکیمٍ (۴) أَمْرًا مِّنْ عِندِنَا إِنَّا کنَّا مُرْسِلِینَ (۵) رَحْمَةً مِّن رَّبِّک إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِیعُ الْعَلِیمُ (۶)
In the Name of God the All Merciful the Ever Merciful
Ha Mim (1) By the manifest Book (2) Indeed We sent it down on a blessed night and indeed We have been warning [mankind] (3) Every definitive matter is resolved in it (4) as an ordinance from Us, Indeed We have been sending [apostles] (5) as a mercy from your Lord —indeed He is the All-hearing, the All-knowing (6)
|— Quran 44|
There are hadiths in Shi'a sources that presented the night of Qadr and Surat al-Qadr as evidence for existence of an Imam in every time. According to these hadiths, angels were sent down to the Prophet (s) on that night and because the Qadr night is not only for the Prophet's (s) time, every year they will be sent down on his successors, Infallible Imams (a) who are the nearest and most similar people to him (s). Here are two of these hadiths:
Ibn 'Abbas narrated: Imam 'Ali (a) said, "There is a Qadr night in every year, in which the affairs of the year will sent down. There are guardians for those affairs after the Prophet (s)." Ibn 'Abbas asked, "Who are they?" Imam said "I and eleven of my descendants, the muhaddath (the one to whom the angels speak) Imams."
Imam al-Baqir (a) said, "O, community of Shi'a! Argue with your opponents by Sura al-Qadr, so that you succeed. By God! It (Surat al-Qadr) is about the Proof of God (Hujjat Allah) on people after the Prophet (s) and it (Sura al-Qadr) is the master of your religion and the extend of our knowledge."
In other words the summary of the argument will be as following:
- In the Night of Qadr the fate of the year was sent down to the Prophet (s),
- Laylat al-Qadr is not only for the Prophet's (s) time,
- There must a person with the same characteristics of the Prophet (s), to whom the angels would be sent down on the Night of Qadr,
- According to hadiths, this person is an infallible Imam (a) who succeeds the Prophet (s);
- So there must be an existent infallible Imam in every time to whom the angels would descent, and presently - according to reliable hadiths - he is no one except for Imam al-Mahdi (a), the last infallible Imam.
Specifying Laylat al-Qadr
There is no explicit narration specifying the exact date of Laylat al-Qadr in Islamic sources. However, there are several presumptions according to hadiths.
According to Shi'a hadiths, the Night of Qadr is either 19th or 21st or 23rd of the month of Ramadan. The most probable of the three is the latter. Al-Shaykh al-Saduq said, "Our elite anonymously said that Laylat al-Qadr is the 23rd of the month of Ramadan." It is been narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that there is Laylat al-Qadr to the Day of Judgment and it is in the month of Ramadan. In another hadith, it is reported that the night of 19th is the night of assessment (Taqdir), the night of 21st is the night of confirmation (Ibram) and the night of 23rd is the night of determination (Imda').
Based on a narration from the Prophet (s), Sunni believe that Laylat al-Qadr is one of the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan. According, to hadiths in their Sihah most of them mark the night of 27th of Ramadan as Laylat al-Qadr. On the other hand, some Sunni believe that the Night of Qadr was repeated in every year only in the time of the Prophet (s) and after his demise there is no Laylat al-Qadr. Some other believe that the Night of Qadr is an unspecified night in the year. In the year of Bi'tha it was in the month of Ramadan, but in other years it can be in other months.
There is a complete Sura in the Qur'an describing and eulogizing this night, titled after it -al-Qadr. Here are some attributes of this night which were mentioned in the Qur'an and hadiths:
- It is better than one thousand months: the Qur'an explicitly denotes this in Surat al-Qadr "The night of Qadr is better than a thousand months." Imam al-Sajjad (a) says in the 44th supplication of Sahifat al-Sajjadiyya, which is about coming of the month of Ramadan "… Then He made one of its nights surpass the nights of a thousand months, and named it the Night of Qadr."
- The night of revelation of the Qur'an: according to the verses of Qur'an and hadiths, the Qur'an was sent down as a whole on the Night of Qadr from al-Lawh al-Mahfuz (preserved tablet) to the sky of this world or Bayt al-Ma'mur or the heart of the Prophet (s). It is extensively explained in Quranic Studies that there are two revelations for the Qur'an: as a whole and gradual over 23 years of the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad (s). The latter was a verbal revelation unlike the former.
- The night of forgiveness of sins: The Prophet (s) has been quoted, "Whoever stays up the Night of Qadr (performing Mustahab acts) and is faithful and believes in the Day of Judgment, all his sins will be forgiven."
- The heart of the month of Ramadan: Imam al-Sadiq (a) said, "... the master of the months is the month of Allah, the Ramadan month, and the heart of the Ramadan month is the Night of Qadr..."
- Master of the nights: It has been narrated from the Prophet (s) "The Night of Qadr is the master of all nights."
Merits of the Days of Qadr
According to narrative and jurisprudential sources, the days of the presumed nights of Qadr are similar to their night in merits and attributes.
Mustahab Acts for the Nights of Qadr
|For the full text, see text:Supererogatory Deeds of Laylat al-Qadr.|
The Mustahab (recommended) acts for the nights of Qadr are divided into two types: the acts which are common to the three nights and are done in all of them, and particular acts for each night, which are extensively mentioned in Mafatih al-jinan and other supplication books.
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