Al-'Urwa al-wuthqa (book)
|Author||Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi|
|Original title||العُروَة الوُثقی|
|Publisher||Mu'assisat al-A'lami li-l-Matbu'at|
Al-ʿUrwa al-wuthqā (Arabic: العُروَة الوُثقی ) is a jurisprudential book which is written in Arabic by Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi, one of the greatest faqihs of Shi'a in the 14th/20th century. The book is also known as al-'Urwa.
- Main article: Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi
Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba'i Yazdi (b. 1247/1831 - d.1337/1919) took the position of marja'iyya following the demise of al-Mirza al-Shirazi. During the constitutional movement he was among the opponents of this movement. In the attacks of Italy to Libya, England to Iraq, and Russia to Iran, Sayyid Yazdi decreed that the Muslims had to defend their homeland.
The book has 17 jurisprudential chapters. Beginning of the book is about ijtihad (being able to give a scholarly opinion on religious law) and taqlid (following a religious authority) and it contains 72 problems which discuss about different aspects of the issue. Next chapters are about 'ibadiyyat (worshipings) like tahara (cleansing), prayer, fasting, i'tikaf, khums (religious tax), hajj (pilgrimage of mecca) zakat (religious tax) and in the next chapters it discusses about mu'amilat (dealings) like rent, mudariba (limited partnership), shirkat (contribution), muzari'a , musaqat, daman (guarantee), hawala (transfer), marriage, wasiyya (testament).
Al-'Urwa al-wuthqa was a manual book of jurisprudence and after the demise of its author, in the past 100 years, it became highly noticed among the scholars and nowadays it is one of the most important books in Shi'a seminaries. It is one of the sources for dars kharij (the highest course of Islamic jurisprudence)
The most important characteristic of the book is its numerous problems which discusses about different cases especially about al-Masa'il al-Mustahdatha (new problems). The book contains 3260 problems and apparently it is the first jurisprudential book which has organized all these problems by numbering them.
Commentaries and Glosses
From the publication time till nowadays, many faqihs have posed their opinions about the ideas of the book in the form of annotations and commentaries and glosses.
- Mulhaqat al-'urwa al-wuthqa which comprise debates on riba (usury), waqf (endowment), wikala (agency), hiba (gift) etc.
- Mustamsak al-'urwa al-wuthqa, the first arguable commentary on 'Urwa by Ayatollah Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim and one of the source books which is reliable for faqihs.
- Hashiya of 'Abd Allah Mamaqani (d.1351/1932) author of Tanqih al-maqal which contains his fatwas and published in order.
- Hashiya of Sayyid Muhammad Firuzabadi (d.1345/1926) which is published in Najaf.
- Hashiya of Mirza Muhammad b. Husayn Shaykh al-Islam (d.1277/1860) which is published separately.
- Hashiya of Shaykh Muhammad Rida al-Yasin b. Shaykh 'Abd al-Husayn Kazimi which is published in Najaf.
- Hashiya of Haj Aqa Husayn Qummi which is published in Najaf.
- Al-Ghaya al-quswa, translated by Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi to Farsi which is published in Baghdad and Tehran several times.
The book Al-'Urwa al-wuthqa has been published by different publications several times.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from العروة الوثقی in Farsi Wikishia.