Sayyid Ali Husayni Khamenei
|Full Name||Sayyid 'Ali Husayni Khamenei|
|Well-Known As||Ayatollah Khamenei|
|Birth||April 19, 1939|
|Place of Birth||Mashhad|
|Professors||Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani, Ayatollah Burujirdi, Imam Khomeini|
|Works||Chahar kitab-i asli-yi ilm-i rijal, Tarh-i kulli-yi andishi-yi Islami, Pishwa-yi Sadiq, Az zharfa-yi namaz, ...|
|Member of the parliment, leader of the Friday prayer of Tehran, president of the Islamic Republic of Iran, leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran|
Sayyid ʿAli Ḥusaynī Khāminiʼī (Farsi: سید علی حسینی خامنهای) (b. 1939) also known as "Ayatollah Khamenei", is among Shi'a Marja's and the second leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Before being elected as the leader in 1989, he was president for two terms and a member of parliament for a short period. He was also chosen as the Friday Prayer leader of Tehran by Imam Khomeini. Before the Islamic Revolution of Iran, he was among active clerics in Mashhad.
Ayatollah Khamenei's authored or translated some works, the most comprehensive one authored by him is Tarh-i kulli-yi andisha-yi Islami dar Qur'an (the general scheme of the Islamic thought in the Qur'an) and Sulh al-Hasan is his most famous translation. Moreover his speeches have been compiled in a comprehensive work called Hadith-i wilayat (book). Several other books have also been compiled and published about his speeches and written messages in different topics.
His fatwa against insulting Sunnis' respected personalities is among his most famous and effective fatwas in the Islamic world. The concepts of "cultural invasion" and "Islamic awakening" are among the concepts that entered Iranian political and social literature following his speeches and emphasis.
Ayatollah Khamenei is knowledgeable in literature and has also composed some poems and his pen name is "Amin". Contemporary history is another field of his studies and interest areas.
- 1 Birth and Lineage
- 2 Scientific Biography
- 3 Socio-political Activities
- 4 After the Islamic Revolution of Iran
- 5 Presidency
- 6 Leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran
- 7 Religious Authority
- 8 Opinions
- 9 Established Organizations
- 10 International Activities
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External Links
Birth and Lineage
Sayyid 'Ali was born on April 19, 1939 to a religious family in Mashhad. His father, Sayyid Javad Khamenei (d. 1986) was among mujtahids and scholars of his time. He was born in Najaf and moved to Tabriz and later in 1918 moved again to Mashhad. After a while, he went back to Najaf and after completing his studies with great scholars such as Mirza Muhammad Husayn Na'ini, Sayyid Abu l-Hasan Isfahani and Aqa Diya' 'Iraqi and receiving his permission of ijtihad, returned to Iran and settled in Mashhad to the end of his life. He was the prayer leader of Seddiqiha mosque in Bazaar of Mashahd (Azerbaijaniha Mosque) while he taught different seminary topics. He was also among prayer leaders of the Grand Goharshad Mosque.
His great grandfather was Sayyid Muhammad Husayni Tafrishi whose lineage reached back to Aftasi Sayyids and his family tree reached Sultan al-'Ulama Ahmad, known as "Sultan Sayyid Ahmad", who was about 5 generations after Imam al-Sajjad (a).
The grandfather of Sayyid Ali Khamenei, Sayyid Husayn Khamenei (about 1843–1907) was among pro-constitution scholars and student of scholars such as Sayyid Husayn Kuhkamara'i, al-Fadil al-Irawani, Fadil Sharabyani, Mirza Baqir Shakki and Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi. After his return from Najaf to Tabriz, he became a teacher at Talibiyya School and the prayer leader of the grand mosque of Tabriz.
Sayyid Muhammad Khamenei (1876–1934) known as "Payghambar" was the uncle of Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei and a student of al-Akhund al-Khurasani and Shaykh al-Shari'a Isfahani and among pro-constitution scholars.
Ayatollah Sayyid Hashim Najafabadi (known as Mirdamadi) (1886–1961), the grandfather of Sayyid Ali Khamenei's mother was among students of al-Akhund al-Khurasani and Mirza Muhammd Husayn Na'ini. He was among the Qur'an scholars and exegetes and one of the prayer leaders of Goharshad mosque. He also made great efforts in enjoining to the good and forbidding evil and was exiled to Semnan following his criticism of killing people in Goharshad mosque at the time of Reza Shah. Sayyid Ali Khamenei's lineage from the side of his mother reached Muhammad al-Dibaj, son of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq (a).
Sayyid Ali began studying in Maktabkhana by learning the Glorious Qur'an since he was 4 years old. At the same time, he began learning recitation and tajwid of the Qur'an under some reciters of Mashhad. He began primary hawza studies when he was at last years of the primary school. After he finished primary school, he continued his religious studies in Sulayman Khan School. He studied a part of "muqaddamat" (primary courses of Hawza studies) and sath with his father. He finished the stage of "sath" in Nawwab School. He continued his studies up to the second year of high school at the same time with his studies at Hawza.
In 1964, he attended kharij lessons (the highest-level courses of Hawza) of Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani. In 1966, he had a short trip to Najaf with his family and participated in the lessons of famous teachers of there; however, due to his father's disinclination for staying in that city, returned to Mashhad and attended for one more year in the class of Ayatollah Milani and in 1967, he went to the Hawza of Qom.
Sayyid Ali Khamenei returned to Mashhad in 1964 to help his father who suffered eyesight problem and attended again in the sessions of Ayatollah Milani until 1970.
Since the time he was in Mashhad, he taught fiqh and usul (including the books Rasa'il, al-Makasib, and Kifaya) at high levels and held public sessions of tafsir of the Qur'an. Since 1968, he began teaching a special course of tafsir of the Qur'an for religious students which continued until 1977 before he was exiled to Iranshahr. Tafsir sessions continued in some years of his presidency and after that. After he became the president of Iran, he began his kharij classes in 1990 and has been teaching lessons of jihad, qisas, and al-makasib al-muharrama so far.
Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei has been student of many great scholars of Hawza, some of which are as follows:
- Sayyid Jalil Husayni Sistani in Ma'alim al-usul
- Sayyid Jawad Khamene'i in Sharh al-lum'a, Rasa'il, al-Makasib and Kifaya
- Mirza Muhammad Mudarris Yazdi in Sharh al-lum'a
- Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Milani
- Ayatollah Burujirdi
- Imam Khomeini
- Ayatollah Shaykh Murtada Ha'iri Yazdi
- Ayatollah Sayyid Muhammad Muhaqqiq Damad
- Allama Tabataba'i
Ayatollah Khamene'i began research and writing since he was a seminary student as he wrote his teachers' class scripts. His thoughts have been compiled in a comprehensive work under the title of Hadith-i Wilayat. Different books have also been compiled and published containing his talks and written messages. Moreover, some other works of him and some translations have been published.
- Chahar kitab-i asli-yi ilm-i rijal (the four major books of rijal)
- Tarh-i kulli-yi andishi-yi Islami (the general scheme of the Islamic thought in Qur'an)
- Pishwa-yi Sadiq (the truthful leader)
- Az zharfa-yi namaz (from the depth of prayers)
- Sabr (patience)
- Ruh-i tawhid, nafi-yi 'ubudiyyat-i ghayr-i Khuda (the spirit of monotheism, negation of worshipping rebels)
- Guzarish-i az sabiqi-yi tarikhi wa awza'-i kununi-yi Hawzi-yi 'Ilmiyyi-yi Mashhad (a report from the historical record and current situaltion of the Mashhad seminary)
- Ayanda dar qalamru-yi Islam, written by Sayyid Qutb
- Sulh-i Imam Hasan (a); Pur shukuh-tarin narmish-i qahramanana-yi tarikh, written by al-Shaykh Radi Al Yasin
- Tafsir fi zilal al-Qur'an, written by Sayyid Qutb
- Musalmanan dar nahdat-i azadi-yi Hindustan, written by 'Abd al-Mun'im al-Nimr
- Eddi'anama 'alayh-i tamaddun-i gharb, written by Sayyid Qutb
The turning point for Sayyid 'Ali which led to beginning of his political activities and fighting Pahlavi regime was meeting with Sayyid Mujtaba Navvab Safavi (Mirluwhi) in Mashhad. In February 1963 and also in 1964, he was the messenger between Imam Khomeini and Ayatollah Milani.
In a trip to Birjand, he made a speech against the regime and thus was arrested on June 2, 1963 and was prisoned in Mashhad. After he was released, Ayatollah Muhammad Hadi Milani visited him. He was among the clerics who sent a telegram to Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani, Mahdi Bazargan, and Yadullah Sahabi, who were imprisoned after their support for Imam Khomeini, on January 1, 1964.
At the same time, having him as their leader, some clerics from Khorasan wrote a letter to Hasan Ali Mansur, the prime minister of the time, and published it, in which they objected to the continuation of Imam Khomeini's arrest. Sayyid Ali Khamenei, Abu l-Qasim Khaz'ali, and Muhammad 'Aba'i Khurasani were among those clerics.
In February 1964, Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei went to Zahedan for preaching and explaining the theories behind the Islamic Movement. His speeches in the mosques of Zahedan led to his arrest and moving him to the prison of Qizil Qal'a. He was released from the prison on March 4, 1964. And later, he returned to Qom from Mashhad in the Fall of 1964.
He was with 10 other people including 'Abd al-Rahim Rabbani Shirazi, Muhammad Husayni Bihishti, 'Ali Fayd Mishkini, Ahmad Adhari Qumi, 'Ali Quddusi, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Sayyid Muhammad Khamenei and Muhammad Taqi Misbah Yazdi to make a group of 11 formed to fight the Pahlavi regime by strengthening and reforming the Hawza of Qom.
He was also the leader of congregational prayer at Amir al-Mu'minin Mosque in Tehran. Following the arrest of Ayatollah Sayyid Hasan Qumi in March 1967 which happened after his anti-regime speech in Goharshad Mosque, Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei asked Ayatollah Milani to object to his arrest.
After the destructive earthquake of the south of Khorasan on August 31, 1968, some clergies led by him went to Ferdos in order to help and organize people's aids to earthquake-stricken people. While he was there, he continued his political activities in meetings, lectures, and religious gatherings. Such activities made his stay in Ferdos cut short.
Even though he was prosecuted, he was in contact with some combatant clerics in Mashhad and Tehran such as Sayyid Mahmud Taliqani, Sayyid Muhammad Rida Sa'idi, Muhammad Jawad Bahunar, Muhammad Rida Mahdawi Kani, Murtada Mutahhari, Akbar Hashimi Rafsanjani, and Fadl Allah Mahallati and even though he was in Mashhad, he came to Tehran and participated in some of the gatherings of scholars and combatant clergies.
After Ayatollah al-Sayyid Muhsin al-Hakim passed away in May 1970, Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei made a greater effort to reinforce the religious authority of Imam Khomeini as the most knowledgeable religious authority. On September 24, 1970, he was arrested and was held in army prison of Khorasan. In August 1971, he was summoned to SAVAK of Mashhad and sent to the army prison of Khorasan again so that he would not have any activities against the 2500 year celebration of Persian Empire. These celebrations were banned by Imam Khomeini. After he was released, he was arrested two more times in the same year and in the second time, he was sentenced to 3 months prison with the charge of acting against the national security.
After he was released, Sayyid Ali Khamenei expanded his political and social activities. His classes and tafsir continued in Mirza Ja'far School, Imam Hasan Mosque, Qibla Mosque and his own house in Mashhad.
In December 1973, he moved the place of his congregational prayer and tafsir class to Karamat Mosque. After a while, security organizations stopped holding congregational prayer in that mosque.
In November 1974, he began making speeches in Jawid Mosque of Tehran. He was again arrested in January 1975, but this time he was moved to the prison of the Joint Committee of Anti-Sabotage in Tehran. In this prison, he had no opportunity of having any visit and the place and situation of his prison was not informed to his family.
He was released on August 24, 1975, but he was still under surveillance of security agents and he was banned from leading congregational prayer, making speeches, teaching and holding tafsir courses even in his own house; however, he continued his tafsir and other activities in private.
After Ali Shari'ati passed away on June 19, 1977, Sayyid Ali Khamenei attended in his funeral. After Sayyid Mustafa Khomeini passed away, Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei and some other combatants held a memorial ceremony for him in Mulla Hashim Mosque on October 28.
After the Islamic Revolution of Iran
Membership in The Council of the Islamic Revolution
After Imam Khomeini immigrated to France, he ordered the formation of The Council of the Islamic Revolution in late October 1978 and its members were being gradually chosen by him. The first members of the council were Mortaza Motahhari, Sayyid Mohammad Beheshti, Sayyid 'Abd al-Karim Musawi Ardabili, Muhammad Rida Mahdawi Kani, Sayyid Ali Khamenei, Muhammad Jawad Bahunar, and Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.
Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei attended in the sessions of the council in late January 1979. At that time, the council made very important decisions about fighting with the regime including negotiation with the officials of Pahlavi government and foreign countries, forming the committee of welcoming Imam Khomeini and introducing Mahdi Bazargan to Imam Khomeini as the president of the temporary government.
After the Islamic Revolution, the Council was in charge of legislation in the absence of an official legislature, performing some of the duties of the cabinet after merging of the transitional government with the Council of Revolution in July 1979 and performing all duties of the government after the transitional government resigned on November 5, 1979. Beside all these duties, it was an authority for solving the problems and crises ahead of the newly born Islamic Republic and also a counseling body for Imam Khomeini. Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei was a permanent member of this council until the end of its activity on July 20, 1980.
He believed that the Council of the Revolution needed to be composed of different representatives from various groups and parts of the society. The problems of Kurdistan, Sistan and Baluchistan and other parts of the country and maintaining the unity of people, were among other important issues Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei focused on in the council.
Participation in Military and Defense Organizations
In late July 1979, Sayyid Ali Khamenei was chosen as the Deputy of Revolution Affairs in the Defense Ministry and also a member of the Commission of Security Ministers who was in charge of all police, military, and security affairs. Beside all his missions assigned by the Council of the Revolution, he also became the head of the Center for Documents of Islamic Revolution and the Chief of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution on November 24, 1979. On February 24, 1980, he resigned from this position due to his candidacy for the first period of the parliament.
Establishment of the Islamic Republic Party
During the days leading to the success of the Islamic Revolution and after that, Sayyid Ali Khamenei worked together with Sayyid Mohammad Beheshti, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Sayyid Abd al-Karim Musavi Ardabili, and Mohammad Javad Bahunar for the establishment of a revolutionary institution. This institution officially announced its existence on February 18, 1979, but its background dated back to sessions held in Mashhad in the summer of 1977.
Sayyid Ali Khamenei was among the ones who compiled the manifesto of the party and took the task of the party propagation. He was a founding member and a member of the central council and did more for the party during the time of its establishment and presented party positions in the form of pamphlets. He also played a role in the establishment of the branch of the party in Mashhad and opened its office on March 17, 1979.
After Beheshti and Bahunar, Sayyid Ali Khamenei was chosen by the central council of the party as its third general director. In the first general congress of the party in May 1983, he was chosen as the general director of the party, a member of the central council and the judgment council of the party.
During his presidency, he participated in the sessions of the party in Tehran and other cities and while he explained the missions and goals of the party, he also answered questions of the members of offices and branches of the party.
Leader of Friday Prayer of Tehran
On January 14, 1980, Imam Khomeini appointed Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei as the leader of Friday prayer of Tehran, pointing to his good background and merits in knowledge and action. He led the first Friday prayer on January 18, 1980. From this time until June 27, 1981, when he was attacked in Abudhar Mosque in Tehran and he was seriously injured, he led the Friday prayer of Tehran except for a few days. He had this responsibility thereafter as well.
Holding a seminar for the leaders of Friday prayer around Iran in order to make an integrated network of these leaders in the country and around the Islamic World was his idea and the first seminar was held in Faydiyya School in Qom, after the approval of Imam Khomeini.
He also sometimes made Arabics sermons after the second Persian sermon of Friday prayer.
Membership of the Parliament
Sayyid Ali Khamenei entered the first round of the parliament in March 1980 elected by the votes of Tehran, with the support of the Jami'a-yi Ruhaniyyat-i Mubariz, the Islamic Republic Party, and some other Islamic organizations and groups.
In October 1981, Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei became the president and left the parliament.
Injury due to a Terrorist Attack
Sayyid Ali Khamenei was severely injured on June 27, 1981, after the blast of a bomb installed in an audio recorder while he was speaking after Noon Prayer in Abudhar Mosque in one of the southern neighborhoods of Tehran. After this terrorist attack, he received severe injury on his chest and his right hand, the effects of which still can be seen on his right hand which is not very functional. Non-official reports regarded the Mujahidin-i-Khalq Organization as the organizers of the attack.
Imam Khomeini sent a message to Sayyid Ali Khamenei and condemned the attack on him and praised him. He was released from the hospital on August 9, 1981 and continued his social and political duties and attended the parliament sessions again from August 17.
After the martyrdom of Muhammad 'Ali Raja'i, the second president of Islamic Republic of Iran, the central council of Islamic Republic Party and also the Society of the Teachers of the Seminary of Qom chose Sayyid Ali Khamenei as the candidate of presidency and Imam Khomeini who had not agreed with presidency of clerics in Iran, approved Sayyid Ali Khamanei's candidacy. The election was held on October 2, 1981 and Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei achieved the absolute majority of votes (95.11%) and became the president. On October 9, 1981, Imam Khomeini approved his presidential decree and on October 13, he pledged the oath in the parliament as the third president of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The fourth round of presidential election of the Islamic Republic of Iran was held on August 16, 1985 and Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei received %85 of the votes and became the president of Ian for the second time. After the demise of Imam Khomeini, Sayyid Ali Khamenei was chosen as the supreme leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran in June 1989, and had the both responsibilities until August 1989.
In this term, to solve disagreements between the parliament and the Guardian Council for different bills, Imam Khomeini approved the establishment of the Expediency Discernment Council and Sayyid Ali Khamenei became its first chairman and had that responsibility until the end of his presidency.
In his first presidential term, he traveled to Syria, Lybia and Algeria in September, 1984 and in his second term he traveled to Asian and African countries, for example Pakistan, Zimbabwe, Angola, and Mozambique in January, 1986. He also traveled to Zimbabwe in September, 1986 in order to participate in the 8th Summit of the Non-Aligned Movement. In this trip, he made a speech in the summit and met and spoke with some of the leaders of the Non-Aligned Movement. He also traveled to Yugoslavia and Romania in February, 1989 and to China and North Korea in May, 1989.
On September 22, 1987, Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei participated in 42nd Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations and in his speech, he explained Iran's opinions and positions for the heads of world governments. This was the first presence of the president of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the United Nations General Assembly.
Supporting Muslim Fighters
Among other actions of Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei in foreign diplomacy was to establish strong relationships with political Shi'a groups in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Lebanon and making mutual understanding between them. Establishment of Islamic Unity Party, one of the eight parties of Afghanistan and the Supreme Parliament of the Islamic Revolution of Iraq are important examples of such approach.
In this period, Iranian supports of Islamic combatants of Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq, and Afghanistan were expanded and such supports of Islamic parties and groups in those countries brought them regional and international position.
Leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran
After the demise of Imam Khomeini on June 4, 1989, the Assembly of Experts for Leadership held a session in the afternoon of the same day and after discussing about the leadership being by a council or by an individual and after mentioning Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei, some members of the Assembly mentioned Imam Khomeini's opinion about the competence of Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei for leadership of the country. Then, there was an election and the absolute number of the members of the Assembly chose Sayyid 'Ali Khamenei as the leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
After revision of the constitution and the referendum, the Assembly of the Experts for Leadership held a session once again based on the new constitution and conducted an opinion poll about his leadership and the absolute number of them chose him again as the leader of the country.
Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini, the son and the closest person to Imam Khomeini quoted from Imam Khomeini saying, "Indeed he (Ayatollah Khamenei) is competent for leadership." Zahra Mostafavi, daughter of Imam Khomeini quoted from him, mentioning Ayatollah Khamenei for the leadership and approving his Ijtihad. Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani who is also among influential politicians in Iran quoted from Imam Khomeini mentioning Ayatollah Khamenei for the future leadership of the country. He also said that in a private meeting with him, Imam Khomeini mentioned Ayatollah Khamenei and said, "you will not be in dead end! Since, such a person is among you."
After Ayatollah Khamenei was chosen as the leader, high ranking officials of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the household of Imam Khomeini, religious authorities and scholars, elites, great personalities from Hawza and universities, families of the martyrs and different groups of people approved him or swore allegiance to him.
A few hours after Ayatollah Khamenei was chosen as the leader, Sayyid Ahmad Khomeini sent a message of congratulations to him and regarded the orders of al-Wali al-Faqih incumbent upon himself.
Then, people's allegiance in demonstrations, participation in rallies, declarations, congratulations, and signing scrolls were made. Caravans of allegiance with the new leadership ran on the verge of the 40th day after demise of Imam Khomeini to visit Ayatollah Khamenei from different parts of the country and maneuvers of allegiance with the leadership were made in some borderlines and strategic regions of the country and seminars for promising Imam Khomeini, and showing allegiance with the new leadership were held.
In 1994, after demise of Ayatollah Muhammad Ali Araki, (the Assembly of Teachers of the Seminary of Qom) and the Community of Combatant Clerics of Tehran introduced Ayatollah Khamenei as a competent faqih for being a marja'. In a speech, Ayatollah Khamenei emphasized that there is no need to his religious authority in Iran and he accepts only the request of Shi'as who live outside Iran, but if there would be someone to do take this responsibility, he will withdraw from this one as well.
The first book of rulings published his opinions was Ajwabat al-istifta'at which contained his answers to Shi'a questions regarding rulings.
Ayatollah Khamenei has the idea of Islamic proximity and believes that victory among the Muslim would happen as a result of their unity and decreasing their disagreements. Based on such an idea, he founded the International Assembly for the Proximity among the Islamic schools of thought and has tried to gather influential personalities of the Muslim world in different ways.
In 2009, he stressed on proximity among Islamic schools in his trip to Kurdistan and in his speech among believers in different Islamic schools, he criticized the critics of unity.
Criticism of Tatbir in Mourning Ceremonies
In June 1994, while he was speaking for a group of clerics, he seriously criticized some ways of mourning especially Qamazani and regarded it as bid'a (illegitimate innovation in religion). Also in 1997, he was making speech in Mashhad and considered preaching of Qamazani by communist regimes as a support for his idea and a sign for deviant nature of this act.
Inheritance of a Wife
In July 2007, in a meeting with a group of women, Ayatollah Khamenei mentioned his opinion about the inheritance of a wife from immovable property of her deceased husband and said he believes that a woman inherits from cash value of her deceased husband's immovable property. This opinion is contradictory with many jurists' opinion that a woman only inherits from movable property of her deceased husband.
Idea of Cultural Invasion
In early years of 1990s, Ayatollah Khamenei used expressions such as "cultural invasion" and "cultural raid" and tried to direct the attention of scholars of cultural domains to cultural changes happening in the society. In his opinion, cultural invasion is against cultural exchange; and it is a deliberate attack by colonist powers to destroy the cultures of other nations and expanding their domination over them.
Prohibition of Insulting the Holy Names of Sunni Schools
Ayatollah Khamenei regards it prohibited to insult the holy names of non-Shia people. Also, he himself does not attack holy issues of others. Ayatollah Khamenei, in a fatwa, declared insulting the holy names and great people of other Islamic schools including the wives of all the prophets as prohibited.
After revolutionary movements and riots happened against some Arabic governments in Tunisia, Egypt, Bahrain, Libya, and Yemen which led to the fall of some of the rulers of these countries, Ayatollah Khamenei called such movements as Islamic Awakening which were called by Arabic media as "Arabic spring".
In order to achieve his religious goals and also making reforms in different intellectual and cultural fields, Ayatollah Khamenei established some organizations which are mostly cultural including the organizations listed below:
Message to the Youths of the West
After a terrorist attack by some radical Muslim groups in France in 2014 which led to a high anti-Muslim atmosphere in west, Ayatollah Khamenei sent a message to the youths in Europe and North America. In this message, he asked the youth that in order to know Islam, they need to refer to the original references for Islam which are the Qur'an and the life of the Prophet (s).
This message was widely spread in online social networks in several languages with a hash-tag of "Letter4u". It seems that such a message has been unprecedented among Muslim and Shi'a scholars.
- Tadawum-i aftab, p. 21
- Sharif Razi, Ganjina-yi danishmandan, vol. 7. p. 127
- Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, p. 15
- Zangana, Mashahir-i madfun dar haram-i radawi, vol. 1, p. 77
- Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dhari'a, vol. 2, p. 640
- Gulshan-i abrar, vol. 2, p. 971
- Kasrawi, Qiyam-i shaykh Muhammad Khiyabani, p. 92
- Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, vol. 12
- Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dhari'a, vol. 6, p. 13
- Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, al-Dhari'a, vol. 2, p. 559
- Mirza 'Abd al-Rahman, Tarikh-i 'ulama-yi Khurasan, p. 308; Qasimpur, Daha-yi sarniwishtsaz, p. 60
- Zangana, Mashahir-i madfun dar haram-i radawi, vol. 1, p. 458
- Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, p. 49
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, No. 1226
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 1226
- Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, p. 78
- Jomhuri-yi Islami Newspaper, January 19, 1980
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 1228
- Jalali, Mashhad dar bamdad-i nihdat-i Islami, p. 148
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 1229-1231
- Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, pp. 129-134
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614; 1231-1232
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no.1233
- Yaran-i Imam bi riwayat-i asnad-i Savak, vol. 1, p. 468
- Imam Khomeini dar a'ina-yi asnad, vol. 4, p. 392
- Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, pp. 162-166
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 1234
- Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, p. 187
- Buhbudi, Sharh-i ism, pp. 192-195
- Hashimi, Duwran-i mubarizi, vol. 2, p. 1566
- Yaran-i Imam bi riwayat-i asnad-i Savak, vol. 3, pp. 5-7
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 574
- Bazargan, Yaddashtha-yi ruzana, pp. 422-423
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614
- Yaran-i Imam bi riwayat-i asnad-i Savak, vol. 1, p. 248; vol. 2, p. 497; vol. 38, p. 14; vol. 44, p. 521; vol. 15, p. 355
- Bihbudi, Sharh-i ism, pp. 331-332; 470-471
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 123; no. 614
- Sahifa-yi Imam, 358, 372, 373
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 614
- Yaran-i Imam bi riwayat-i asnad-i Savak, vol. 31, p. 455; Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 573
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 527, 574, 614
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 575
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no.304, 389, 575
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 572, 576
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 389, 572
- Archive of the Center of Documents of Islamic Revolution, no. 576
- Sahifa-yi Imam, vol. 5, p. 426-428
- Pa bi pa-yi aftab, vol. 2, p. 192
- Qasimpur, Dahi-yi sarniwisht-saz, pp. 92-94
- Bashiri, Hashimi, inqilab wa piruzi, p. 169
- Sa'ili, Tarikhcha-yi shuwra-yi inqilab-i Islami, p. 11
- Sa'ili, Tarikhcha-yi shuwra-yi inqilab-i Islami, pp. 49-62
- Sa'ili, Tarikhcha-yi shuwra-yi inqilab-i Islami, pp. 117-118
- Bashiri, Hashimi, inqilab wa piruzi, p. 449
- Bashiri, Hashimi, inqilab wa piruzi, p. 125
- Bashiri, Hashimi, inqilab wa piruzi, pp. 215-218
- Jasbi, Az ghubar ta baran, vol. 4, p. 149
- Jasbi, Az ghubar ta baran, vol. 4, p. 146
- Hashimi, Ubur az buhran, p. 263
- Bakhshayish, Khatirat-i Sayyid Murtada Nabawi, p. 168
- Jasbi, Az ghubar ta baran, vol. 4, p. 300
- Jumhuri-yi Islami Newspaper, no. 1541, p. 15; no.1543, p. 2
- Sahifa-yi Imam, vol. 12, p. 116
- Sahifa-yi Imam, vol. 14. p. 304
- The material for writing this article is mainly taken from سید علی حسینی خامنهای in Farsi WikiShia.