Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr
|Well-Known As||Muhaddith Kazimayni|
|Religious Affiliation||Twelver Shi'a|
|Birth||Ramadan 29, 1272/June 3, 1856|
|Place of Birth||Kadhimiya|
|Studied in||Najaf, Samara|
|Death||Rabi' I 11, 1354/June 13, 1935|
|Burial Place||Kadhimiyya shrine|
|Professors||Husayn Quli Hamadani, Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Shirazi|
|Students||Muhammad Jawad Balaghi|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Muhammad Hashim b. Zayn al-'Abidin Isfahani|
|Permission for Hadith|
|Muhammad Husayn Gharawi Isfahani, Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi, Aqa Buzurg Tihrani, Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Isfahani|
|Works||Ta'sis al-Shi'a li-'ulum al-Islam|
Al-Sayyid Ḥasan al-Ṣadr (Arabic: السيد حسن الصدر, b. 1272/1856 – 1354/1935) was a scholar in jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence and hadith and was among Shi'a authorities known as Muhaddith al-Kazimayni. He received permission for transmitting hadiths from many religious scholars. His most famous work is Ta'sis al-Shi'a li-'ulum al-Islam on the role of Shi'a in foundation of Islamic sciences.
Life and Education
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr was born on Ramadan 29, 1272/June 3, 1856 in Kadhimiya. His father Al-Sayyid Hadi al-Sadr was among the scholars of his time. Al-Sayyid Hasan began studying religious sciences by the advice of his father and learned Arabic morphology, grammar, discourse, semantics and literary devices by the age of fifteen and began participating in the classes of jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence since the age of eighteen.
Residing in Najaf
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr emigrated to Najaf by the order of his father. He learned philosophy, theology, jurisprudence, principles of jurisprudence and other Islamic sciences in the seminary of Najaf in seventeen years and reached the level of ijtihad in jurisprudence and principles of jurisprudence.
Emigration to Samara
Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Shirazi emigrated to Samara in 1291/1874 and many of his students emigrated there as well. Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr emigrated to Samara in 1297/1880 and stayed there for seventeen years. He taught there beside benefitting from the classes of Ayatollah Shirazi. His eloquent speech attracted everyone. Ayatullah Shirazi especially favored him as well. Two years after the demise of Ayatullah Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Shirazi (1314/1896), Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr returned to his hometown, Kadhimiya, together with his cousin, Al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr.
Teachers and Some Students
Some teachers of Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr were:
- Baqir b. Muhammad Hasan Al Yasin
- Abd al-Husayn b. Ni'ma al-Turayhi
- Allama Sayyid Baqir b. al-Haydar
- Muhammad b. al-Hajj Kazim
- Muhammad Taqi Golpaygani
- Abd al-Nabi Nuri Tabrisi
- Husayn Quli Hamadani
- Mirza Baqir Salmasi
- Muhammad Baqir Shakki
- Abd al-Husayn Hindi
- Muhammad Taqi Baykani
- Sayyid Muhammad Hasan Shirazi
Permission for Transmitting Hadiths
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr was among hadith scholars and was therefore famous as Muhaddith Kazimayni. Those from whom he transmitted hadiths were two groups:
First group: those from whom he transmitted hadiths without having written permissions from including: Mirza Hasan Shirazi (d. 1312/1894), Mirza Habib Allah Rashti (d. 1312/1894), Muhammad Hasan b. Hashim Kazimi (d. 1308/1890), Muhammad Irawani (d. 1306/1888), Muhammad Hasan Al Yasin and Sayyid Hadi Sadr (d. 1316/1898).
Second group: those scholars who gave him written permissions for transmitting hadiths including: Shaykh Mulla Ali b. Khalil Razi (d. 1297/1880), Sayyid Mahdi Qazwini Hilli, Mirza Muhammad Hashim b. Zayn al-'Abidin Isfahani (d. 1318/1900).
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr was a great muhaddith. He gave many scholars, written permissions for transmitting hadiths including:
- Muhammad Husayn Gharawi Isfahani (d.1361/1942)
- Sardar Kabuli (d. 1371/1952)
- Al-Sayyid 'Abd al-Husayn Sharaf al-Din (d.1377/1957)
- Aqa Buzurg Tihrani (d.1389/1970)
- Shaykh 'Abbas Qummi (d. 1359/1940)
- Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Isfahani (d.1365/1946)
- Hadi Al Kashif al-Ghita'
- Abu-l Hasan Naqwi
- Sayyid Rida Hindi
- Muhammad Ali Urdubadi Najafi (d. 1380/1960)
- Hadi Khorasani
- Aqa Rida Isfahani (d. 1322/1904)
- Al-Sayyid Sadr al-Din al-Sadr (d.1373/1953)
Mirza Muhammad Hasan Shirazi passed away in 1312/1894. Many of Shirazi's followers asked Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr to publish his manual of practical laws. Sadr rejected their requests and referred them to Ayatollah Al-Sayyid Isma'il al-Sadr. Sayyid Isma'il passed away in 1338/1919. Once again people referred to Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr and repeated their requests, he published his manual of practical laws titled as Ru'us al-masa'il al-muhimma and undertook this responsibility at the age of sixty six.
Scientific Works and Cultural Activities
- Main article: List of Works by Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr wrote eighty two volumes of books, the most famous one of which is Ta'sis al-Shi'a. In this book, he tried to explain how Shi'a has been pioneer in different Islamic sciences comparing to other Islamic sects based on documents.
In Tarikh adab al-lughat al-'Arabiyya published in four volumes, Jurji Zaydan, the famous historiographer (d. 1914) wrote, "Shi'a was a small sect who had no significant works and now there is no Shi'a in the world."
When Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr heard about this, promised to work together with Shaykh Aqa Buzurg Tehrani and Ayatullah Muhammad Husayn Kashif al-Ghita' to introduce Shi'a. Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr researched about Shi'a scientific activities and their roles in foundation and perfection of Islamic sciences and compiled his famous work titled Ta'sis al-Shi'a li-'ulum al-Islam which was published in 1370/1950 in 445 pages.
By writing al-Dhari'a ila tasanif al-Shi'a in twenty nine volumes, Shaykh Aqa Buzurg Tehrani introduced Shi'a writings and works in different sciences.
Wahhabi cultural activities were increasing everyday. To remove this trouble, Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr wrote a book titled as Risalat al-sharifa fi radd 'ala fatawa al-Wahhabiyyin.
He loved to buy and collect books so much. His love for that was so much he put aside some necessary expenses in his life in order to be able to buy even one book. He collected old books and manuscripts and if the author of a book was unknown, he searched so much to find its author. His library now holds more than thousand volumes of precious books.
'Allama Sharaf al-Din says, "I heard from Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr that he was (usually) awake to study all nights in his youth; and during the day, he did not take a nap before or after noon. I also witnessed that when he was old, he was busy in his library researching and writing, holding a pen in his right hand and a paper in his left hand. I even dare to say his honorable slept [only] one fourth of his life and was awake the rest of his life, contrary to ordinary people who are awake one fourth of their lives."
Al-Sayyid Hasan al-Sadr passed away on Thursday, Rabi' I 11, 1354/June 13, 1935 and was buried in one of the rooms of the courtyard of Kadhimiyya shrine beside his father's grave. Following his demise, Sayyid Abu al-Hasan Isfahani announced public mourning for three days.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from سید حسن صدر in Farsi WikiShia.