Tomb of al-Hurr al-'Amili in holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)
|Full Name||Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. 'Ali b. al-Husayn al-'Amili|
|Well-Known As||Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili|
|Birth||8th Rajab 1033/26th April 1624|
|Studied in||Jabal Amel|
|Death||21st Ramadan 1104/26th May 1693|
|Burial Place||Holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)|
|Professors||His father Hasan b. 'Ali, Hasan b. Zayn al-Din al-'Amili, ...|
|Students||Mustafa b. Abd al-Wahid b. Sayyar Hubiz, Sayyid Muhammad b. Muhammad Baqir Husayni A'raji Mukhtari Na'ini, ...|
|Works||Wasa'il al-shi'a,Al-Jawahir al-Saniyya fi al-ahadith al-qudsiyya, ...|
|Qadi al-qudat,Shaykh al-Islam|
Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn al-ʿĀmilī (Arabic: محمد بن الحسن بن علي بن الحسين العاملي) (b.1033/1624 – d.1104/1693), commonly known as Al-Hurr Al-'Amili and Sahib al-Wasa'il, was a prominent Twelver Shi'a muhaddith, faqih, and the author of Wasa'il al-Shi'a. He was an Akhbari scholar who believed in the authenticity of all hadiths in the Four Books. He is buried in the holy shrine of Imam al-Rida (a).
Life and Lineage
He was born on Friday, 8 Rajab 1033/26 April 1624 in the village of Mashghara in the Jabal 'Amel area of southern Lebanon, a Shi'a center in the region. His lineage is traced back to Hurr b. Yazid al-Riyahi through 36 generations. His family is known as Al-e Hurr (descendants of Hurr).
As al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili himself stated, the family of Al-e Hurr were famous for being knowledgeable and supporting Ahl al-Bayt (a) (the family of Prophet Muhammad (s)); they also raised several notable faqihs and scholars.
Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili's father, Hasan b. 'Ali, was a notable scholar, literary figure, faqih and a knowledgeable figure in Arabic literature. People mostly visited him as a source of knowledge in Islam. His mother was the daughter of 'Allama Shaykh 'Abd al-Salam; she was a pious woman who was knowledgeable in literature.
His uncle, al-shaykh Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Hurr al-'Amili, was the author of Al-Rihla. He penned numerous glosses, commentaries, treaties and collections of poems.
His cousin, Hasan b. Muhammad b. 'Ali, was a notable scholar and a literary figure. His grandfather, al-Shaykh 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Hurr al-'Amili, was a prominent scholar who was famous for his worship and his knowledge in shari'a laws. In addition his son, al-Shaykh Muhammad b. Muhammad, was the superior figure of his time in logics.
The maternal grandmother of al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili, 'Abd al-Salam b. Shams al-Din Muhammad al-Hurr al-'Amili, was a knowledgeable figure in Fiqh laws.
When he was forty years old, al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili moved from Jabal Amel to Iraq to make a pilgrimage of the holy shrines in 1073/1662-1663 Then he moved to Mashhad to visit the shrine of Imam al-Rida (a) where he remained for the rest of his life.
Al-Hurr Al-'Amili performed hajj twice in 1087/1676-1677 and 1088/1677-1678. In his last travel to Mecca al-Shaykh was saved from the attacks of Ottomans. The Turks of Ottomans attacked Iranian and slew them all. Their excuse was that Iranian disrespected Ka'ba. Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili managed to escape the incident by the help of Sayyid Musa b. Sulayman, who was one of the lords of Mecca and a descendant of Imam al-Husayn (a). Then he moved to Iraq from Yemen.
On his journey to Mashhad, he visited 'Allama al-Majlisi in Isfahan, and the two mutually granted each other the ijaza for transmitting hadith. In a meeting with Shah Sulayman Safavi, he received the titles of Qadi al-qudat (The judge of all judges) and Shaykh al-Islam of Khurasan.
- Hasan b. 'Ali, his father (d. 1062 A.H)
- Al-Shaykh Muhammad b. 'Ali Hurr, his uncle (d. 1081 A.H)
- Al-Shaykh 'Abd al-Salam b. Muhammad Hurr, his maternal ancestor
- Al-Shaykh 'Ali ibn Mahmud al-'Amili, his father's uncle
- Hasan b. Zayn al-Din al-'Amili (d.1011/1602) the son of Al-Shahid al-Thani and the author of Al-Ma'alim fi l-din.
- Al-Shaykh Husayn al-Zahiri
- Sayyid Hasan Husayni al-'Amili
- Al-Shaykh 'Abd Allah al-Harfushi
- Muhammad Tahir b. Muhammad Husayn Shirazi al-Najafi al-Qummi
- Sayyid Mirza Jazayeri al-Najafi
- Al-Shaykh 'Ali, the grandson of Al-Shahid al-Thani
- Aqa Husayn al-Khunsari
- Al-Sayyid Hashim al-Bahrani
- Mulla Muhammad al-Kashi
Tendencies toward Akhbarism
Al-'Amili was a scholar in Akhbari; he believed all the narrations of the four books are reliable. He brought twenty reasons in proving his claim, in the last section of the book Al-Wa'il al-Shi'a. In addition, he believed we cannot act based on doubt, because of the possibility of achieving knowledge on Shari'a laws.
He attended the classes of famous Akhbari scholars. Therefore, while he was under the influence of Akhbarism in Safavid era, eventually he accepted Akhbarism and became a moderate preacher of Akhbari who expanded it among Shi'a Muslims. However he refused to have disputes against the followers of Usuli and Mujtahids, but he defended and supported Akhbarism strongly, while he tried his best to make it more dominant. He was among the first people who tried to explicitly make a distinction between Akhbari and Ijtihadi schools of thought. He fiercely criticized logical means in concluding Shari'a laws. Al-'Amili explained his ideas and attitudes in his famous book, Fawa'id al-Tusiyya. In the beginning part of his book, Al-'Amili explained his motivations in writing this book.
Al-Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili had popular classes in Mashhad with numerous notable students including:
- Mustafa b. 'Abd al-Wahid b. Sayyar Hubiz
- Al-Shaykh Muhammad Rida, the son of Al-Shaykh Mustafa
- Al-Shaykh Hasan, Al-Shaykh Mustafa's son
- Sayyid Muhammad b. Muhammad Baqir Husayni A'raji Mukhtari Na'ini
- Sayyid Muhammad b. Muhammad Badi' Radawi Mashhadi
- Mawla Muhammad Fadil b. Muhammad Mahdi Mashhadi
- Sayyid Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Mahya al-Din Musawi al-'Amili
- Mawla Muhammad Salih b. Muhammad Baqir Qazwini, known as Rowghani
- Mawla Muhammad Taqi b. 'Abd al-Wahhab Astarabadi Mashhadi
- Mawla Muhammad Taqi Dihkharqani Qazwini
- Sayyid Muhammad b. Ahmad Husayni Gilani
Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili penned numerous valuable works. Wasa'il al-Shi'a is considered as the most important and priceless work of Al-'Amili, which is still regarded highly among Shi'a faqihs and mujtahids. It consists of Shi'a narrative hadiths from Shi'a hadith collections like the Four Books and other fiqhi (jurisprudential) books. This great collection contains 36.000 hadiths with their sources in jurisprudential matters. It was also translated and many different commentaries and glosses were written on it. Al-Hurr al-'Amili also has written different other works including:
- Al-Jawahir al-saniyya fi al-ahadith al-qudsiyya, his first work
- Al-Sahifa al-thani min ad'iya 'Ali b. al-Husayn (a); it includes supplications which were not mentioned in Al-Sahifa al-Sajjadiyya
- Tafsil wasa'il al-shi'a ila tahsil masa'il al-shari'a; a collection of hadiths on Shari'a laws
- Hadaya al-amma ila ahkam al-a'ima; a summary of Wasa'il al-Shi'a
- Man la Yahduruhu al-Imam
- Al-Fawa'id al-tusiyya; answers to questions of people of Tus.
- Ithbat al-hudat bi l-nusus wa l-mu'jizat; on miracles of Prophet Muhammad (s) and Imams (a).
- Amal al-Amil; consists of the names of scholars and their biographies
- Risala fi al-radd 'ala alv sufiya; consists 1000 hadiths in rejecting Sufism
- Kashf al-ta'miya fi hukm al-tasmiya
Al-Hurr al-'Amili had an exceptional talent in composing poems. He has written numerous poems in praising Ahl al-Bayt (a). His Divan contains 20000 verses of poems.
Al-'Amili wrote long poems, his Qasida in praising Prophet Muhammad (s) and Ahl al-Bayt (a) is arranged with over 100 verses. Another Qasida on miracles and virtues of Ahl al-Bayt (a) is over 400 verses.
He composed poems expertly and applied different beautiful literary techniques which made his poems magnificent. Here are some poems:
Although I'm named Hurr (free) but I'm a servant of Ahl al-Bayt (a) If they grant me freedom I'd be back serving them all Also in another poem he said: If remembering friends is enjoyable praising Ahl al-Bayt is more delightful to me
Scholars and Notable Figures view on al-Hurr al-'Amili
Al-Shaykh al-Hurr al-'Amili is considered among the most notable Shi'a scholars in the eleventh century. He has made great efforts in order to enrich Shi'ism with hadiths and notable narrators of Shi'a. He is regarded highly respected among Shi'a scholars for his influential works.
Sayyid 'Ali Khan Madani said: Al-Shaykh Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Hurr al-Shami al-'Amili was a grand scientific figure. The universal influence of his works has significantly affected different people of different countries. His writings are regarded as stars in the sky of knowledge while his words are valuable pearls next to each other.
Muhammad b. 'Ali Ardibili described al-Hurr al-'Amili as a significant figure whose virtues are ineffable and countless.
Muhaddith al-Qummi stated: Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. 'Ali Mushghiri, is the greatest narrator, virtuous scholar, knowledgeable faqih, reliable narrator and a source of knowledge who has written significant works.
'Allama Amini said about al-Hurr al-'Amili in Al-Ghadir: He was the precious pearl of the time and a shining figure in the world of virtuousness. He was a knowledgeable man in every subject; he was an ultimate symbol of knowledge, graciousness and excellence. He has written hadiths of Ahl al-Bayt (a) in proving Imamat, collecting Shari'a laws and praising them. Therefore, he has carved his name forever by his impressive works.
- The material for writing this article has been mainly taken from شیخ حر عاملی in Farsi wikishia.
- Amin al-'Amili, Sayyid Muhsin, a'yan al-shi'a. Beirut: Dar al-Ta'aruf
- Hurr al-'Amili, Muhammad b. Hasan, Amal al-amil. Baghdad: Maktabat al-Andulus
- Hurr al-'Amili, Muhammad b. Hasan, Ithbat al-huda bi al-nusus wa al-mu'jizat. Beirut: al-A'lami inistitute, 1425
- Hurr al-'Amili, Muhammad b. Hasan, Wasail al-shi'a. Qum: Alu l-Bayt
- Madani, Sayyid 'Ali Khan, Salafat al-'asr. Tehran: Murtadawi, Maktabat al-Sadr
- Afandi, 'Abd Allah b. 'Isa, Riad al-'ulama' wa hayad al-fudala. Qum: Matba'at al-Khayyam
- Ardabili, Muhammad 'Ali, Jami' al-ruwat. Maktabat al-Muhammadi
- Qummi, Shaykh 'Abbas, al-Kuna wa al-alqab. Tehran: Maktabat al-Sadr
- Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-anwar. Beirut: al-Wafa' Inistitute, 1403
- Amini, 'Abd al-Husayn, al-Ghadir. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi, 1397