Aṣḥāb al-Kisāʾ (Arabic: اصحاب الکِساء) [lit. Companions of the Cloak] are those persons who were given place by the Prophet (s) under his cloak when the al-Tathir Verse revealed to him. Ashab al-Kisa' are the Prophet (s), Imam Ali (a), Fatima (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), and Imam al-Husayn (a). They are also known as Al 'Aba, Ashab al-Kisa', Al Kisa', and al-Khamsa al-Tayyiba (the pure five). This event shows excellence of Ashab al-Kisa' over others and that these five persons are "the best of people" and "the most generous of all creation and most honorable among them before God".
Number of Ashab al-Kisa'
- Main article: Hadith al-Kisa'
The reports which have been related by Shi'a about Hadith of al-Kisa' prove that Ashab al-Kisa' are five: The Prophet (s), Imam Ali (a), Fatima (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), and Imam al-Husayn (a). According to these reports, Umm Salama asked the Prophet (s) to join them but he (s) did not allow her.
The Prophet (s) excluded the address of the Verse of Tathir to five persons.
About the verse of Tathir, al-'Allama al-Hilli says, "Revelation of the verse of Tathir about the five Ashab al-Kisa' is among Mutawatirat [frequently reported hadiths] and no one doubts about it except the enemy or the despiteful".
The title "Ashab al-Kisa'" became famous among exegetes and narrators; i.e. they said that the verse of Tathir is revealed about Ashab al-Kisa' instead of mentioning the names of each of them. For example, about the cause of revelation of the verse, "They give food, for the love of Him, to the needy, the orphan, and the prisoner" (Quran 76:8), al-'Allama al-Majlisi says, "Exegetes and hadith scholars represent a consensus on that this verse is revealed about Ashab al-Kisa'".
- 'Ilal al-sharayi' ,Vol.1, P.733
- Nahj al-haqq wa kashf al-sidq, P.230
- Bihar al-anwar, Vol.35, P.256
- The material for this article is mainly taken from صحاب کساء in Farsi Wikishia.
- al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Babwayh, 'ilal al-sharayi' , translated by: Zihni Tihrani, Mu'minin Publication, Qom, 1421/2001.
- Al-Majlisi, Muhammad Baqir, Bihar al-anwar, Beirut, Dar Ihya' al-Turath al-'Arabi, 1403/1983.