- This article is about an epithet of Imam al-Husayn (a). For Imam al-Husayn (a), see Imam al-Husayn (a).
Sayyid al-Shuhadāʾ (Arabic: سید الشهداء), meaning the Master of Martyrs, is the epithet the noble Prophet (s) gave to his uncle, Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, who was martyred in the Battle of Uhud and mutilated. This is also one of the most famous epithets of Imam al-Husayn (a).
Epithet of Hamza
In most of the books of narration and history he is referred to as Sayyid al-Shuhada', but other epithets have been used to refer to him as well such as Master of Martyrs of Heaven, Master of the First and Last Martyrs except the Prophets and their successors, Best of Martyrs, The Supreme of Martyrs, God and His Prophet's (s) Lion.
Imam 'Ali (a), in the Six-Member Council, Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a) in the Event of 'Ashura', and Muhammad b. Hanafiyya in his sayings and arguments have always allured to Hamza's high position by referring to him with this epithet which shows the fact that Hamza had reached such a position to be called Sayyid al-Shuhada'. It was a source of pride for Banu Hashim and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) ever since.
- In the Ziyarah text of the Prophet (s) we read;
- السَّلامُ عَلی عَمِّک حَمزة سَیدِالشُّهَداء: Peace on your uncle, Hamza, the Master of Martyrs.
- and in the Ziyarah text of Hamza we read;
- السَّلامُ عَلَیک یا عَمَّ رَسولِ اللّهِ وَ خیرَ الشُهَداء: Peace on you oh uncle of God's messenger, and best of Martyrs.
Epithet of Imam al-Husayn (a)
It seems that this epithet became widely popular for Imam al-Husayn (a) during Imam al-Sadiq's era. One of the female companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a), an Iraqi woman called Umm Sa'id Ahmasiyya, had decided to visit the graves of the martyrs of Medina, when Imam al-Sadiq (a) asked her, "Why don't you visit the grave of the Sayyid al-Shuhada' of your own [town]?" Umm Sa'id, thinking that Imam al-Sadiq (a) is referring to Imam 'Ali (a) asked, "Who do you mean by Sayyid al-Shuhada'?" He replied, "Sayyid al-Shuhada' is al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a)."
Explaining how both Hamza and Imam al-Husayn (s) have received the Sayyid al-Shuhada' epithet, Mulla Salih Mazandarani says that Hamza was the Sayyid al-Shuhada' of his time, whereas Imam al-Husayn (a) is the absolute Sayyid al-Shuhada'. After Hamza's martyrdom, Lady Fatima (a) made a Misbaha from his grave's soil and used every knot to say a dhikr in her prayers. Now Shi'as make Misbahas from Imam al-Husayn's (a) soil (see: Turba). Regarding the distinct quality of a Misbaha made from Imam al-Husayn's (a) soil, as compared to Hamza's soil, Imam al-Sadiq (a) says, "A Misbaha made of Imam al-Husayn's soil is blessed with the rewards of dhikr for only being onto one's hand even if he (the holder) himself is not uttering anything ."
Epithet of Other Personalities
Beside Hamza and Imam al-Husayn (a), others have been referred to as Sayyid al-Shuhada' such as St. George the Prophet (a), Bilal al-Habashi, Ja'far b. Abi Talib, and Mihja' b. 'Abd Allah, the first martyr of the Battle of Badr.
In addition, the Prophet (s) has said that the next Sayyid al-Shuhada' after Hamza is the one who would go to an oppressive leader to enjoin him to the good and forbid him from doing the evil and is killed for doing so.
- al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, 1966, vol. 1, p. 290; al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh-i ya'qubi, vol. 2, p. 47
- See: al-Tabari, Dhakha'ir al-'uqba, p. 176; al-Sifadi, al-Wafi bi-l-wafayat, vol. 13, p. 170
- See: al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, vol. 2, p. 394; al-Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Khisal, vol. 2, p. 412,555; al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 37
- al-Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 575
- Kitab-i Sulaym b. Qays, 133-134; al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Kamal al-din, p. 263-264
- Kitab-i Sulaym b. Qays, 133; al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Ghayba, p. 191; al-Tabari, Dhakha'ir al-'ugqba, p. 176
- al-Kufi, Tafsir Furat Kufi, p. 101; al-Shaykh al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 450
- al-Waqidi, al-Maghazi, vol. 1, p. 290; al-Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 203-204; al-Shaykh al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 224
- See: Nahj al-balagha, Leter. 28; al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 5, p. 424; al-Shaykh al-Saduq, al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 320; al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Irshad, vol. 2, p. 97; al-Shaykh al-Tusi, al-Amali, p. 546, 554, 563-564
- Ibn Qulawayh, Kamil al-ziyarat, p. 62
- Ibn Qulawayh, Kamil al-ziyarat, p. 142, 148
- Ibn Qulawayh, Kamil al-ziyarat, p. 142, 217-220; al-Shaykh al-Saduq, Thawab al-a'mal, 97-98
- Mazandarani, Sharh-i usul kafi, vol. 11, p. 368
- al-Tabrisi, Makarim al-akhlagh, p. 281; Najashafi, Jawahir al-kalam, vol. 10, p. 404-405
- al-Tabrisi, Makarim al-akhlagh, p. 281
- San'ani, Tafsir al-Qur'an, vol. 3, p. 5, 150; Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh madinat Dimashq, vol. 64, p. 192
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- al-Tha'labi, al-Kashf wa al-bayan, vol. 7, p. 270; Baqawi, Tafsir al-Baqawi, vol. 3, p. 460
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- The material for this article is mainly taken from سید الشهداء in Farsi Wikishia.