Thār Allāh (Arabic: ثارالله) is a title of Imam al-Husayn (a) which is mentioned in ziarah texts, including Ziyarah of 'Ashura. There are different interpretations of this term. A well-known interpretation is that God will revenge for Husayn's (a) blood. According to hadiths, God calls all people to avenge for Imam al-Husayn's (a) blood. Finally, his heirs (wali al-dam) will avenge for him.
Title of Imam al-Husayn
In Shiite hadiths and texts, "Thar Allah" is a title of Imam al-Husayn (a). In some ziyarahs of Imam al-Husayn (a), including Ziyarah Ashura and Ziyarah al-Warith, it appears in phrases such as "Al-salam 'Alayk ya Thar Allah wa ibn Tharih" (Peace be upon you, O "Thar" [blood] of God and the son of His "Thar"). It is also mentioned in Ziyarah of Imam al-Husayn (a) in the frist day of Rajab, middle of Rajjab and Sha'ban and in the day of 'Arafa. A prominent Shiite poet, ibn Rumi(d. 283/896-97) used the phrase in a long poem he composed for the elegies of Yahya b. 'Umar, a great grandson of Imam al-Husayn (a) who was martyred in 250/864-65 at the command of the government of that period.
- See also: Ya Latharat al-Husayn
"Thār" literally means revenge for the blood (murderer and enemy are also mentioned as its meaning). Its verb form means to kill a murderer in order to avenge the victim.
In some of the ziyarahs of Imam al-Husayn (a), after using this title for that Imam, Its meaning is explained. According to these explanations, Imam al-Husayn (a) is "Thar Allah on Earth", and God is the avenger of his blood who calls everyone to avenge for him. Finally, heirs (wali al-dam) of Imam al-Husayn will avenge for him, or it is said that Imam al-Husayn (a) himself will avenge for his own and his family's blood from his enemies after raj'a.
According to Lexicographers and Scholars of Hadiths
In general, scholars of hadiths and lexicographers have mentioned 5 meanings for "Thar Allah":
- "Thar Allah" means: a person for whom God will avenge (the phrase originally was "ahl thar Allah" and and the word "ahl" [people who have the right] before "Thar" is elliptical).
- "Thar Allah" means: someone whose avenger is God ("Thar" is an object noun, that is, a person who is killed and has avengers).
- "Thar Allah" means God's blood. Thar Allah is used metaphorically similar to phrases such as "'Ayn Allah" (God's eye) and "Yad Allah" (God's hand).
- "Thar" is a distorted form of "Tha'ir", meaning: a person who avenges for the sake of God.
- "Thar" means an avenged blood. Thus, "Thar Allah" means a blood whose heir (wali al-dam) or avenger is God. Mirza Abu l-Fadl al-Tihrani, in his book Shifa' al-sudur fi sharh ziyarat al-'ashur which is one of the famous commentaries on Ziyarah 'Ashura, crticizes four aforementioned meanings and offers this fifth meaning.
'Ali Akbar b. Muhammad Amin al-Lari wrote an essay for the exposition of the hadith of "Ya Thar Allah wa bna Tharih" and discussed some issues about "Thar Allah". He has also elaborated some arguments for the infallibility of Ahl al-Bayt (a). The manuscript of this treatise is preserved in Ayatollah Mar'ashi Najafi Library.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from ثارالله in Farsi Wikishia.