The Fourteen Infallibles
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The Fourteen Infallibles are fourteen figures in Islam which are deemed by Twelver Shiites to be infallible and immune from any sins and mistakes, including the Holy Prophet (s), and thirteen of his Ahl al-Bayt (a), that is, his daughter, Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) and the twelve Shiite Imams (a).
The Shiites call this feature (being immune from any sins and mistakes) 'isma (Arabic: عِصمَة) and people who possess the feature ma'sum (Arabic: معصوم). The belief has its origins in the Qur'anic Verse of Tathir, the Uli l-Amr Verse, Hadith al-Thaqalayn, and some other Qur'anic verses, hadiths and evidence. Infallible Imams are respectively as follows:
- Imam 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), (imamate: 11-40 AH/632-660).
- Imam al-Hasan b. 'Ali al-Mujtaba (a), (imamate: 40-50 AH/660-669).
- Imam al-Husayn b. 'Ali (a), (imamate: 50-61 AH/669-680).
- Imam 'Ali b. al-Husayn al-Sajjad (a), (imamate: 61-94 AH/680-712).
- Imam Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Baqir (a), (imamate: 94-114 AH/712-732).
- Imam Ja'far b. Muhammad al-Sadiq (a), (imamate: 114-148 AH/732-765).
- Imam Musa b. Ja'far al-Kazim (a), (imamate: 148-183 AH/765-799).
- Imam 'Ali b. Musa al-Rida (a), (imamate: 18-203 AH/799-818).
- Imam Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Jawad (a), (imamate: 203-220 AH/818-835).
- Imam 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Hadi (a), (imamate: 220-254 AH/835-868).
- Imam al-Hasan b. 'Ali al-'Askari (a), (imamate: 254-260 AH/868-873).
- Imam Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Mahdi (a), (imamate: 260/873 till now).
For Shiites, the Fourteen Infallibles (a) have the position of 'isma —infallibility with respect to sins and mistakes—and are superior to all the Sahaba (the Prophet's (s) companions) with respect to their abstinence (taqwa) and divine grace, and it is obligatory for all Muslims to love and respect them. According to Shiite doctrines, Ahl al-Bayt (a) are leaders and authorities of all Muslims; that is, Muslims should consult them in religious matters.
|Name||Titles||Kunya||Position||Birth||Place of Birth||Demise||Place of Demise||Cause||Place of Burial|
|Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah||Rasul Allah||Abu l-Qasim||The Prophet of Islam||12 or 17 of Rabi' I, 'Am al-Fil/570||Mecca||Safar 28, 11/June 8, 632||Medina||-||Medina|
|Fatima||al-Zahra, al-Siddiqa, al-Batul||Umm Abiha, Umm al-A'imma||Mother of Imams||Jumada II 20, 8 BH/March 30, 615||Mecca||Jumada II 3, 11/August 29, 632||Medina||She was martyred because of injuries caused to her when she resisted to pledge her allegiance to Abu Bakr's caliphate under duress||Unknown|
|'Ali b. Abi Talib||Amir al-Mu'minin||Abu l-Hasan, Abu Turab||The first Imam of Shiites||Rajab 13, 23 BH/October 1, 600||Mecca (Ka'ba)||Ramadan 21, 40/January 21, 661||Kufa||Stroked by Ibn Muljam al-Muradi's sword in the Great Mosque of Kufa||Najaf|
|Al-Hasan b. 'Ali||al-Mujtaba||Abu Muhammad||The second Imam of Shiites||Ramadan 15, 2 or 3/March, 4, 625||Medina||Safar 28, 50/March 9, 670||Medina||Martyred by his wife, Ja'da bt. Ash'ath b. Qays, motivated and planned by Mu'awiyya||Medina (al-Baqi')|
|Al-Husayn b. 'Ali||Sayyid al-Shuhada||Abu 'Abd Allah||The third Imam of Shiites||Sha'ban 3 , 3 or 4/January 8, 626||Medina||Muharram 10, 61/October 10, 680||Karbala||Martyred together with his companions in a battle with the army of Yazid b. Mu'awiyya||Karbala|
|'Ali b. al-Husayn||Al-Sajjad, Zayn al-'Abidin||Abu l-Hasan||The fourth Imam of Shiites||Sha'ban 5, 38/January 4, 659||Medina||Muharram 25, 95/October 20, 713||Medina||He was poisoned and martyred by the order of Walid b. 'Abd al-Malik, the Umayyad Caliph||Medina (al-Baqi')|
|Muhammad b. 'Ali||Baqir al-'Ulum||Abu Ja'far||The fifth Imam of Shiites||Rajab 1, 57/October 14, 676||Medina||Dhu l-Hijja 7, 114/January 31, 733||Medina||He was poisoned and martyred by the order of Hisham b. 'Abd al-Malik, the Umayyad Caliph||Medina (al-Baqi')|
|Ja'far b. Muhammad||Al-Sadiq||Abu 'Abd Allah||The sixth Imam of Shiites||Rabi' I 17, 83/April 23, 702||Medina||Shawwal 25, 148/February 1, 765||Medina||He was poisoned and martyred by the order of Mansur, the Abbasid Caliph||Medina (al-Baqi')|
|Musa b. Ja'far||Al-Kazim||Abu l-Hasan||The seventh Imam of Shiites||Safar 7, 128/November 8, 745||Medina||Rajab 25, 183/August 12, 799||Kadhimiya||He was poisoned and martyred by the order of Harun al-Radhid, the Abbasid Caliph||Kadhimiya|
|'Ali b. Musa||Al-Rida||Abu l-Hasan||The eighth Imam of Shiites||Dhu l-Qa'da 11, 148/February 27, 765||Medina||Safar 29, 203/September 9, 818||Tus, Mashhad||He was poisoned and martyred by the order of al-Ma'mun||Mashhad|
|Muhammad b. 'Ali||Al-Taqi, al-Jawad||Abu Ja'far||The ninth Imam of Shiites||Rajab 10, 195/March 29, 811||Medina||Dhu l-Qa'da 29, 220/January 4, 835||Kadhimiya||He was poisoned and martyred by al-Mu'tasim, by his wife, Umm al-Fadl||Kadhimiya|
|'Ali b. Muhammad||Al-Hadi, al-Naqi||Abu l-Hasan||The tenth Imam of Shiites||Dhu l-Hijja 15, 212/May 6, 827||Medina||Rajab 3, 254/June 28, 868||Samarra||He was poisoned and martyred by the order of al-Mu'tazz||Samarra|
|Al-Hasan b. 'Ali||Al-Zaki, al-'Askari||Abu Muhammad||The eleventh Imam of Shiites||Rabi' II 10, 232/November 24, 846||Medina||Rabi' I 8, 260/January 1, 874||Samarra||He was poisoned and martyred by the order of al-Mu'tamid Billah, the Abbasid Caliph||Samarra|
|Muhammad b. al-Hasan||al-Qa'im||Abu l-Qasim||The Twelfth Imam of Shiites||Sha'ban 15, 255/July 19, 869||Samarra||He is alive and is hidden from people||-||-||-|