The Fourteen Infallibles

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The Fourteen Infallibles are fourteen figures in Islam which are deemed by Twelver Shiites to be infallible and immune from any sins and mistakes, including the Holy Prophet (s), and thirteen of his Ahl al-Bayt (a), that is, his daughter, Lady Fatima al-Zahra (a) and the twelve Shiite Imams (a).

The Shiites call this feature (being immune from any sins and mistakes) 'isma (Arabic: عِصمَة) and people who possess the feature ma'sum (Arabic: معصوم). The belief has its origins in the al-Tathir Verse, the Uli l-Amr Verse, Hadith al-Thaqalayn, and some other Qur'anic verses, hadiths and evidence. Infallibles are the Prophet (s), Lady Fatima (a), Imam 'Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a), and the nine Imams (a) from the descendants of Imam al-Husan (a).

Place

For Shiites, the Fourteen Infallibles (a) have the position of 'isma —infallibility with respect to sins and mistakes—and are superior to all the Sahaba (the Prophet's (s) companions) with respect to their abstinence (taqwa) and divine grace, and it is obligatory for all Muslims to love and respect them. According to Shiite doctrines, Ahl al-Bayt (a) are leaders and authorities of all Muslims; that is, Muslims should consult them in religious matters.

Name Titles Kunya Position Birth Place of Birth Demise Place of Demise Cause Place of Burial
Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah Rasul Allah Abu l-Qasim The Prophet of Islam 12 or 17 of Rabi' I, 'Am al-Fil/May 6, or 11, 570 Mecca Safar 28, 11/May 28, 632 Medina - Medina
'Ali b. Abi Talib Amir al-Mu'minin Abu l-Hasan, Abu Turab The first Imam of Shiites Rajab 13, 23 BH/October 1, 600 Mecca (Ka'ba) Ramadan 21, 40/January 31, 661 Kufa Stroked by Ibn Muljam al-Muradi's sword Najaf
Fatima al-Zahra, al-Siddiqa, al-Batul Umm Abiha, Umm al-A'imma Mother of Imams Jumada II 20, 8 BH/March 30, 615 Mecca Jumada II 3, 11/August 29, 632 Medina Injuries caused to her when she resisted to pledge her allegiance to Abu Bakr's caliphate under duress Unknown
Al-Hasan b. 'Ali al-Mujtaba Abu Muhammad The second Imam of Shiites Ramadan 15, 3/March 4, 625 Medina Safar 28, 50/March 30, 670 Medina Poisoned by his wife, Ja'da bt. al-Ash'ath b. Qays, motivated by Mu'awiyya Medina (al-Baqi')
Al-Husayn b. 'Ali Sayyid al-Shuhada Abu 'Abd Allah The third Imam of Shiites Sha'ban 3, 4/January 11, 626 Medina Muharram 10, 61/October 13, 680 Karbala Martyred together with his companions in a battle with the army of Yazid b. Mu'awiyya Karbala
'Ali b. al-Husayn Al-Sajjad, Zayn al-'Abidin Abu l-Hasan The fourth Imam of Shiites Sha'ban 5, 38/January 9, 659 Medina Muharram 25, 95/October 24, 713 Medina Poisoned by the order of Walid b. 'Abd al-Malik Medina (al-Baqi')
Muhammad b. 'Ali Baqir al-'Ulum Abu Ja'far The fifth Imam of Shiites Rajab 1, 57/May 13, 677 Medina Dhu l-Hijja 7, 114/February 1, 733 Medina Poisoned by the order of Hisham b. 'Abd al-Malik Medina (al-Baqi')
Ja'far b. Muhammad Al-Sadiq Abu 'Abd Allah The sixth Imam of Shiites Rabi' I 17, 83/April 24, 702 Medina Shawwal 25, 148/December 18, 765 Medina Poisoned by the order of al-Mansur Medina (al-Baqi')
Musa b. Ja'far Al-Kazim Abu l-Hasan The seventh Imam of Shiites Safar 7, 128/November 12, 745 Medina Rajab 25, 183/September 5, 799 Kadhimiya Poisoned by the order of Harun al-Radhid Kadhimiya
'Ali b. Musa Al-Rida Abu l-Hasan The eighth Imam of Shiites Dhu l-Qa'da 11, 148/January 2, 766 Medina Safar 29, 203/September 9, 818 Tus, Mashhad Poisoned by the order of al-Ma'mun Mashhad
Muhammad b. 'Ali Al-Taqi, al-Jawad Abu Ja'far The ninth Imam of Shiites Rajab 10, 195/April 12, 811 Medina Dhu l-Qa'da 29, 220/November 28, 835 Kadhimiya Poisoned by al-Mu'tasim, by his wife, Umm al-Fadl Kadhimiya
'Ali b. Muhammad Al-Hadi, al-Naqi Abu l-Hasan The tenth Imam of Shiites Dhu l-Hijja 15, 212/March 10, 828 Medina Rajab 3, 254/July 2, 868 Samarra Poisoned by the order of al-Mu'tazz Samarra
Al-Hasan b. 'Ali Al-Zaki, al-'Askari Abu Muhammad The eleventh Imam of Shiites Rabi' II 8, 232/December 6, 846 Medina Rabi' I 8, 260/January 5, 874 Samarra Poisoned by the order of al-Mu'tamid Samarra
Muhammad b. al-Hasan al-Qa'im Abu l-Qasim The Twelfth Imam of Shiites Sha'ban 15, 255/August 2, 869 Samarra He is alive and is hidden from people - - -

See Also