Imam 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Hadi (a)

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'Ali b. Muhammad al-Hadi (a)
10th Shia Imam
مرقد امام هادی علیه السلام.jpg
Born (828-03-10)10 March 828 CE
(Dhu l-Hijja 15, 212)
Birthplace Sarya, Arabia
Beginning of Imamate November 29, 835/Dhu l-Qa'da 30, 220
Duration of Imamate 34 years
Martyrdom 2 July 868(868-07-02) (aged 40)
(Rajab 3, 254)
Deathplace Samarra, Iraq
Cause of Death Death by Poisoning
Place of Burial Samarra, Iraq,
34°11′54.5″N 43°52′25″E / 34.198472°N 43.87361°E / 34.198472; 43.87361
Predecessor Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Jawad
Successor Al-Hasan b. 'Ali al-'Askari
Father Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Jawad
Mother Samana
Spouse(s) Salil
Son(s) Al-Hasan, Muhammad, Husayn, Jafar
Daughter(s) 'A'isha
Other Titles Al-Hadi (Arabic for the Guide),
al-Naqi
(Arabic for the Pure)
The Twelve Imams
'Ali, al-Hasan, al-Husayn, al-Sajjad, al-Baqir, al-Sadiq (a), al-Kazim, al-Rida, al-Jawad, al-Hadi, al-'Askari, al-Mahdi

Abu l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad al-Hādī, (b. 212/828 - d. 254/868) (Arabic:ابوالحسن علي بن محمد الهادي) was the son of Imam al-Jawad (a) and he was the tenth of the twelve Shi'a Imams. He is also known as al-Naqī (النقي, the pure) and al-Hādī (الهادي, the guide). He was the Imam (leader) between 220/835 and 254/868 for a period of thirty-four years.

Many years of the imamate (leadership) of Imam al-Hadi (a) took place in Samarra under direct surveillance of the rulers of his time. His imamate was contemporary with the rule of some Abbasid caliphs including al-Mutawakkil al-'Abbasi.

Different hadiths are narrated from Imam al-Hadi (a) about ideological issues, interpretation of the Qur'an, fiqh, and ethics. Al-Ziyarah al-Jami'a al-Kabira which includes Shi'a ideological concepts about the Imams, is narrated from Imam al-Hadi (a).

During his imamate, Imam al-Hadi (a) educated students and managed Shi'a affairs. Some of his students and companions included: 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani, 'Uthman b. Sa'id, Ayyub b. Nuh, al-Hasan b. Rashid and al-Hasan al-Utrush.

His shrine is in Samarra. The dome and some minarets of his shrine were destroyed by bombing in 2006; and again, in 2008 other minarets of the shrine were also destroyed by another bombing.

Lineage, Kunya, and Titles

Imam al-Hadi's (a) father was Imam al-Jawad (a), the ninth Imam of the Shi'a school of thought. His mother was a concubine called Samana[1] or Susan[2].

Imam al-Hadi (a) and his son Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a) became famously known as 'Askariyyayn[3]; since Abbasid caliphs took them to Samarra in 233/847-848 and held them under surveillance until the end of their lives.

Imam al-Hadi (a) was also known under other titles such as al-Naqi, al-Najib, al-Murtada, al-'Alim, al-Faqih, al-Amin, and al-Tayyib.

His kunya was Abu l-Hasan. Since the Kunya of Imam al-Kazim (a) and Imam al-Rida (a) was also Abu l-Hasan; to avoid any mistake, in haidth sources Imam al-Kazim (a) is called Abu l-Hasan al-Awwal (the first Abu l-Hasan), Imam al-Rida (a) is called Abu l-Hasan al-Thani (the second Abu l-Hasan) and Imam al-Hadi (a) is known as Abu l-Hasan al-Thalith (the third Abu l-Hasan).

The inscription of Imam al-Hadi's (a) ring read, "Allah rabbi wa huwa 'ismati min khalqih" (اللّه ربّی و هو عصمتی من خلقه; Allah is my Lord and He keeps me warded from His creatures).[4]

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
Idris
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
 
Musa
 
 
 
 
Fatima
 
 
 
Hakima
 
 
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari
 
 
Husayn
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 


Birth and Martyrdom

Shi'a
Usul al-Din (Beliefs)
Main Beliefs TawhidProphethoodResurrection'AdlImamate
Other Beliefs 'IsmaWilayaMahdawiyya: Occultation (Minor Occultation, Major Occultation), Intizar, Zuhur, and Raj'aBada'
Furu' al-Din (Practical Orders)
'Ibadi Orders PrayerFastingKhumsZakatHajjJihad
Non-'Ibadi Orders Forbidding the EvilEnjoining the GoodTawalliTabarri
Sources of Ijtihad Qur'anSunnaReasonIjma'
Ethics
Virtues ForgivenessGenerosityGenerous help
Vices Greater SinsKibr'UjbGhururJealousy
Sources Nahj al-BalaghaAl-Sahifa al-SajjadiyyaLetter of Imam 'Ali to Imam al-Hasan
Challenging Issues
Succession of the Prophet (s)Shafa'aTawassulTaqiyyaMourningMut'aCompanions
Figures
Shi'a Imams Imam 'Ali (a)Imam al-Hasan (a)Imam al-Husayn (a)Imam al-Sajjad (a)Imam al-Baqir (a)Imam al-Sadiq (a)Imam al-Kazim (a)Imam al-Rida (a)Imam al-Jawad (a)Imam al-Hadi (a)Imam al-'Askari (a)Imam al-Mahdi (a)
Companions

Men: HamzaJa'far b. Abi TalibSalman al-FarsiMiqdad b. AswadAbudhar al-Ghifari'Ammar YasirMalik al-AshtarMuhammad b. Abi Bakr'Aqil'Uthman b. HunayfAbu Ayyub al-AnsariJabir b. 'Abd Allah al-AnsariIbn 'Abbas'Abd Allah b. Ja'farKhuzayma b. ThabitBilalYasir

Women: KhadijaLady Fatima (a)ZaynabUmm KulthumAsma' bt. 'UmaysUmm AymanUmm Salama
Scholars LitterateursScholars of UsulPoetsScholars of RijalFaqihsPhilosophersBibliographersExegetes
Shrines
Mecca: Al-Masjid al-Haram
Medina: Al-Masjid al-NabawiAl-Baqi'
Al-Quds: Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa
Najaf: Shrine of Imam 'Ali (a)Masjid al-Kufa
Karbala: Shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)
Kadhimiya: Shrine of al-Kazimayn (a)
Samarra: Shrine of al-'Askariyyayn (a)
Mashhad: Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a)
Damascus: Zaynabiyya
Qom: Shrine of Lady Fatima al-Ma'suma
Shiraz: Shah Chiragh
Rey: Shrine of 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani
Eids
Eid al-FitrEid al-AdhaEid al-GhadirMab'athProphet's birthdayImams' birthdays
Mournings
FatimiyyaMuharram (Mournings of Muharram), Tasu'a, 'Ashura and Arba'in)
Events
MubahalaEvent of GhadirEvent of Saqifa Bani Sa'idaFadakEvents of Lady Fatima's HouseBattle of JamalBattle of SiffinBattle of NahrawanEvent of KarbalaHadith al-ThaqalaynAshab al-Kisa'Tathir VerseKilling Shi'as
Literature
Qur'anNahj al-balaghaal-Sahifa al-SajjadiyyaThe Four Books: (al-Istibsaral-KafiTahdhib al-ahkamKitab man la yahduruh al-faqih) • Mushaf of Fatima (a)Mushaf Imam 'Ali (a)Kitab SulaymWasa'il al-Shi'aBihar al-anwaral-GhadirMafatih al-jinanMajma' al-bayanal-MizanOther Books
Sects
Ithna 'AshariyyaIsma'iliyyaZaydiyyaKaysaniyya

According to al-Kulayni, al-Shaykh al-Mufid, al-Shaykh al-Tusi and Ibn Athir, Imam al-Hadi's (a) birth was in the middle of Dhu l-Hijja, 212/March 10, 828 in a region called Sarya near Medina[5]. It was reported by some, that the 2nd or 5th day of Rajab (1st or 4th of October, 827) was the day of his birth.[6]

According to the narrations of al-Shaykh al-Mufid and others, Imam al-Hadi (a) was martyred in the month of Rajab 254/July, 868 after twenty years and nine months of being held in Samarra[7]. Some sources have mentioned the date of his martyrdom as Rajab 3/July 2,[8], while others have mentioned it being the twenty-fifth or twenty-sixth of Jumada II (25th or 26th June)[9], during the rule of al-Mu'tazz, the thirteenth Abbasid caliph.

Wife and Children

Imam al-Hadi's (a) wife was called Salil[10]. She was a concubine from Nawba[11], she was also the mother of Imam al-'Askari (a).

Most Shi'a scholars have listed four sons of Imam al-Hadi (a), but there is disagreement regarding the number of daughters. Al-Hadini wrote Imam al-Hadi's (a) sons were al-Hasan (a), Muhammad, al-Husayn and Ja'far (who claimed imamate and was later called Ja'far al-Kadhdhab).[12]

Regarding his children, al-Shaykh al-Mufid wrote, "His successor was Abu Muhammad al-Hasan who was Imam after him, and then there are al-Husayn, Muhammad and a girl named 'A'isha[13]." Ibn Shahrashub mentioned another daughter for him called 'Aliyya.[14] However, according to different evidences and references, it may have been the case that Imam al-Hadi (a) had only one daughter who had different names. According to Sunni scholars, Imam al-Hadi (a) had 4 sons and one daughter.[15]

Imamate

Imam al-Hadi (a) became the Imam in 220/835. Since the Shi'a (except a few) had passed the issue of the small age of Imam al-Jawad (a) upon becoming Imam, no obvious doubt was raised about the Imamate of Imam al-Hadi (a). According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, all followers of Imam al-Jawad (a) except a few, accepted the imamate of Imam al-Hadi (a). The other few people, for a short period of time believed in the imamate of Musa b. Muhammad (d. 296/909) known as Musa al-Mubarqa' who is buried in Qom; however, after a while, they turned from his imamate and accepted the imamate of Imam al-Hadi (a).[16] Sa'd b. Abd Allah attributed the turning of these people from Musa al-Mubarqa' due to the fact that Musa al-Mubarqa' himself rejected this belief.[17]

Proofs of Imamate

According to al-Tabrisi and Ibn Shahrashub, the consensus of the Shi'a, on the imamate of Imam al-Hadi (a) is a strong and undeniable proof for his imamate.[18] However, al-Kulayni and others have previously mentioned statements about imamate and some narrations suggest that when Imam al-Jawad (a) was summoned by al-Mu'tasim al-'Abbasi to Baghdad and since Imam al-Jawad (a) deemed it a threat for his life, he (a) introduced Imam al-Hadi (a) as his successor to the Shi'a[19] and even left a written statement about his imamate, in order for no doubt regarding this to remain afterwards[20].

Contemporary Caliphs

During his imamate, Imam al-Hadi (a) was contemporary with some Abbasid caliphs, chronologically with:

Imam al-Hadi (a) was poisoned and martyred, and was buried in his house in Samarra[21].

Al-Mutawakkil's Behavior

Prior to al-Mutawakkil reaching power, the caliphs' policies were the same as al-Ma'mun's, which defended Mu'tazilits against Ahl al-Hadith and this had brought a favorable environment for the Alavis. Upon the coming of al-Mutawakkil, Ahl al-Hadith were supported and incited against Mu'tazilites and Shi'a and this resulted in them becoming more oppressed.

Abu l-Faraj al-Isfahani mentioned bad behavior of al-Mutawakkil towards Talibids and mentioned 'Ubayd Allah b. Yahya b. Khaqan, al-Mutawakkil's minister, similar to al-Mutawakkil, among the serious enemies of the Alavis. The severe actions of al-Mutawakkil towards Talibids included: destroying Imam al-Husayn's (a) shrine, plowing the lands on and around the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) and severely punishing the pilgrims.[22] This was only because the grave of Imam al-Husayn (a) in Karbala proved as an emotional link between masses of Shi'a and their Imams (a).

Summon to Samarra

In 233/848, al-Mutawakkil decided to take Imam (a) from Medina to Samarra. After mentioning the spiteful talks of some people about the Ahl al-Bayt (a) before al-Mutawakkil, Ibn al-Jawzi writes, "Due to these reports implying the bond between people and Imam al-Hadi (a), al-Mutawakkil summoned Imam to Samarra".[23]

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid wrote, "In a letter to al-Mutawakkil, Imam al-Hadi (a) rejected malicious reports. In replying to Imam, al-Mutawakkil wrote a respectful letter and cunningly asked Imam to move towards Samarra".[24] Al-Kulayni and al-Shaykh al-Mufid have mentioned the text of al-Mutawakkil's letter.

Al-Mutawakkil had planned to take Imam al-Hadi (a) to Samarra in such a way that people's emotions would not be stirred and the Imam's (a) forced move would not have any undesirable side effect, however the people of Medina had become aware of the plot in advance.

Regarding this, Ibn al-Jawzi narrated from Yahya b. Harthama, "I went to Medina and entered the city. People became agitated and made unexpected slow reactions. Gradually, the distress of the people reached a level that they began complaining to an extent, that was never before seen in Medina".[25]

Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 463/1071) wrote that Ja'far al-Mutawakkil brought him [Imam al-Hadi (a)] from Medina to Baghdad, and then to Samarra and he lived there for twenty years and nine months, he passed away at the time of al-Mu'tazz and was buried there.[26]

Residence in Samarra

Upon entering Samarra, Imam al-Hadi (a) was welcomed by people and stayed at the home of Khuzayma b. Hazim.[27]

According to al-Shaykh al-Mufid, the first day Imam (a) entered Samarra, al-Mutawakkil ordered that he (a) be held in "Khan Sa'alik"[28] for one day and the next day Imam (a) was taken to a house which was assumed for his residence. According to Salih b. Sa'id, this was done in order to humiliate Imam (a).[29]

For twenty years until the end of his life, the Imam (a) lived in that city. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid mentioned Imam's (a) compulsory residence in Samarra and wrote, "Apparently, Imam al-Hadi (a) was respected by the caliph, however in disguise, al-Mutawakkil made plots against the Imam (a), none of which succeeded".[30]

In Samarra, the people highly revered the Imam's (a) great personality and spirit. The all showed great amounts of humility before him.

During his compulsory residence in Samarra, Imam (a) seemingly had a calm life and al-Mutawakkil wanted to show him in the role of a courtier and decrease his grandeur in the eyes of the people, while he took Imam (a) under surveillance.[31]

The people keeping surveillance, reported to al-Mutawakkil that there were weapons and letters from the Shi'a in the house of the Imam (a). He ordered for some soldiers to quickly rush to the Imam's (a) house. upon arriving at the Imam's (a) residence, they found him (a) alone in a room with the floor covered by sand, while he (a) was wearing woolen clothes, had a head covering and murmured some verses of the Qur'an; so they took him in that state to al-Mutawakkil.

When Imam (a) entered, al-Mutawakkil had a cup of wine in his hand; he seated Imam (a) beside himself and offered Imam (a) a cup and asked him, "Drink!" Imam (a) excused himself and said, "My meat and blood have never been fouled by wine." Then, al-Mutawakkil asked Imam (a) to recite a poem that would entertain him. Imam (a) said "I hardly ever recite poetry," but al-Mutawakkil insisted and the Imam (a) recited a poem about the powerful people who moved from palaces to graves after their death, and their state in the grave.[32] When the Imam (a) finished reciting the poem, all attendants and even al-Mutawakkil himself were so moved, that al-Mutawakkil's face had become wet with tears. Al-Mutawakkil then ordered that the drinking table be removed. He ordered for the Imam (a) to be taken back to his house respectfully.[33]

Rule of al-Muntasir

After al-Mutawakkil, his son al-Muntasir came to power and this lessened the government's pressure on the Alavis; thus the pressure on Imam al-Hadi (a) also decreased, even though in different regions, statesmen still suppressed the Shi'a.

The decrease of suppression in comparison to previous times, had led to better organization of the Shi'a in different regions and if at any time, one of the deputies of Imam (a) in the cities was arrested, Imam (a) appointed another person instead of him.

Explaining Islamic Teachings

Priority of the Qur'an

One of the deviations Ghulat (exaggerators) brought up and caused other Islamic sects to attack the Shi'a, was the issue of surrounding the altering the Qur'an .Sunnis are also affected by this due to the insertion of inauthentic hadiths in their books.

Against this accusation, Shi'a Imams (a) have always given priority to the Qur'an and have regarded any hadith opposite to the Qur'an as invalid and false.

In an extensive treatise narrated by Ibn Shu'ba al-Harrani, Imam al-Hadi (a) strictly insisted on the priority of the Qur'an and mentioned it as an accurate standard for assessment of hadiths and distinguishing authentic ones from inauthentic ones. He officially declared the Qur'an as the only text that all Islamic groups refer to.

Elsewhere regarding a conflicting issue, Imam (a) referred to the Qur'an and convinced everyone to agree with him.[34] Al-'Ayyashi narrated a hadith stating, "Abu Ja'far and Abu 'Abd Allah, peace be with them, said we do not accept anything unless it agrees with the Book of God and the conduct of His Prophet (s)"[35]

Question of Creation of the Qur'an

One of the most important issues of the third/ninth century which kept the Sunni school of thought occupied, was the dispute over the issue of Huduth and Qidam (creation or eternity) of the Qur'an which created divisions and sects among them.

The Shi'a kept silent following the instructions of Imams (a) over this issue. In a letter, Imam al-Hadi (a) ordered one of the Shi'a not to give opinion over this issue and not to display any bias with either of the opinions regarding creation or eternity of the Qur'an.[36]

This helped the Shi'a to not become engulfed in such fruitless arguments.

'Ilm al-Kalam (Theology)

Different opinions among different Shi'a sects made it difficult for the Imams (a) to direct the people. The Shi'a people were scattered in different regions which meant that every once in a while, they became influenced by others' opinions which added to the former mentioned issue. In this confusion, non-Shi'a groups and anti-Shi'a oppositions incited these disagreements and falsely projected them deeper than they actually were. There is a narration from al-Kashshi that explicitly shows a person made up three sects named Zurariyya, 'Ammariyya, and Ya'furiyya and attributed them to each of the great companions of Imam al-Sadiq (a) (i.e. Zurara b. A'yan, 'Ammar al-Sabati, and Ibn Abi Ya'fur).[37]

Shi'a Imams (a) sometimes confronted questions, origins of some of which were these disagreements among Shi'a scholars, which were sometimes just discussion-oriented or sometimes deeper and the Imams (a) had to be judges among these issues.

One of these issues was Tashbih and Tanzih of Divine Attributes. Since the beginning, Shi'a Imams (a) insisted on the truth of the theory of Tanzih.

Discussions of Hisham b. al-Hakam and Hisham b. Salim on Tashbih and Tanzih caused disagreements among the Shi'a and Imams (a) frequently encountered questions in relation to these topics.

Consequently, more than twenty one narrations are reported from Imam al-Hadi (a) about Tanzih, some of which are very comprehensive and they all indicate that Imam (a) approved of Tanzih.[38]

Regarding the Shi'a Imams' (a) opinions about predestination and free will, there is a comprehensive treatise available from Imam al-Hadi (a). In this treatise, Shi'a theological principles regarding predestination and free will, are explained according to the Qur'an and the interpretation of the hadith, "La jabr wa la tafwid bal amrun bayn al-amrayn," (there is no predestination or free will, but the matter is between the two issues) narrated from Imam al-Sadiq (a).[39]

Among narrations reported from Imam al-Hadi (a) with the title of Ihtijajat, most of them are about predestination and free will.

Du'as and Ziyarahs

Imam al-Hadi (a) made great efforts in educating and familiarizing Shi'a Muslims with Shi'a teachings through Du'a (supplication) and Ziyarah (visitation, either physical or vocal). Such du'as in different ways, mentioned some political and social points as well as supplicating to God. These points were very influential in the political realm of the Shi'a and regularly inspired certain concepts within the Shi'a society.

Al-Ziyarah al-Jami'a al-Kabira

This Ziyarah (visitation, vocal) is a wonderful course of Shi'a teachings and introduces the position of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) which was initiated by Imam al-Hadi (a) following the requests of the Shi'a people.

Interacting with Shi'a

Imam al-Hadi (a) was in contact with his Shi'a through the organization of deputies, the same as the previous Imams (a). During this time, most lovers of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) were living in Iran and Imam al-Hadi (a) opposed Ghulat.

Organization of Deputies

Main article: System of Wikala

Although there was a great suppression made by Abbasid caliphs at the time of the last Imams (a), the Shi'a had vastly spread throughout Islamic lands and there were connections between Imam al-Hadi (a) and the Shi'a of Iraq, Yemen, Egypt, and other places. This system of agents guaranteed the establishment, preservation, and strength of this connection. In addition to collecting Khums and sending correspondence to the Imam (a), deputies had a constructive position in theological and conflicts regarding jurisprudence. The system had a pivotal role in their region for establishing the leadership of the next Imam (a).

According to Dr. Jasim al-Husayn, "It can be understood from historical narrations that there were four regions for appointment of deputies," each region included some cities as below:

The Imams' (a) deputies were in contact with the respective Imam (a) through letters carried via trustworthy people. Most theological and teachings of jurisprudence pertaining to the Imams (a) were delivered to the Shi'a through these deputies.

'Ali b. Ja'far al-Hamani was one of the deputies of Imam al-Hadi (a) from Haminia, a village near Baghdad.

Some reports were submitted about him to al-Mutawakkil, which led to his arrest and imprisonment. After being released after a long duration of imprisonment, Imam (a) ordered him to go to Mecca and remain there until the end of his life.[40]

Al-Hasan b. 'Abd Rabbih, or according to some other reports, his son 'Ali, was one of the deputies of Imam al-Hadi (a) and after him, Abu 'Ali b. Rashid was appointed and announced by Imam (a) as his deputy.

From the narrations, al-Kashshi has mentioned regarding Isma'il b. Ishaq al-Nisaburi, that perhaps Ahmad b. Ishaq al-Razi was another deputy of Imam al-Hadi (a).[41]

Relation with Iranian Shi'a

Most Shi'a of the first/seventh century were from Kufa, and the attribute of Kufi was their main sign of being Shi'a.

Since the time of Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a), the title of Qummi can be seen in the last name of some of the companions of Imams (a). They were Ash'aris with Arab origin who lived in Qom.

At the time of Imam al-Hadi (a), Qom was the most important center of the Iranian Shi'a population and there were strong connections between Shi'a of this city and the Imams (a). Exactly opposite to the extent of deviating and exaggerating tendencies that existed among the people of Kufa, there was anti-exaggeration and moderation among the people of Qom. The Shi'a of Qom showed great attention to this issue.

The two cities of Aveh and Kashan, near Qom were also influenced by Shi'a teachings and followed the Shi'a insight of the people of Qom. In some hadiths, Muhammad b. 'Ali al-Kashani is mentioned as one who asked Imam al-Hadi (a) questions about the Unity of God.[42]

The people of Qom had some financial relationships with Imam (a). In this regard, it is said Muhammad b. Dawud al-Qummi and Muhammad al-Talhi were responsible for collecting khums, people's gifts, and religious questions and delivered them to Imam (a).

These residents of Qom and Aveh also traveled in order to visit the shrine of Imam al-Rida (a) in Mashhad. Imam al-Hadi (a) prayed for these people and said: "may they be forgiven".[43]

The Shi'a people of the other cities of Iran had the same relationship with the Imams (a). Although most cities of Iran were populated with the Sunnis and the Shi'as were the minority due to the influence of Umayyads and Abbasids.

Abu Muqatil al-Daylami, a companion of Imam al-Hadi (a) wrote a theology and hadith book about the issue of imamate.[44] Daylam (East of Gilan province) embraced many Shi'a since the late second/eighth century. Moreover, some immigrants from Daylam who came to Iraq became Shi'a.

The city attributes in the last names of the companions of Imam al-Hadi (a) somehow suggest Shi'a centers, such as Bishr b. Bashshar al-Nisaburi (Neyshabur), Fath b. Yazid al-Jurjani (Gorgan), Ahmad b. Ishaq al-Razi (Rey), Husayn b. Sa'id al-Ahwazi (Ahwaz)), Hamdan b. Ishaq al-Khurasani (Khorasan), 'Ali b. Ibrahim al-Taliqani (Taliqan) who lived in different cities of Iran. Due to the activities of the Shi'a, Gorgan and Neyshabur gradually became Shi'a centers in fourth/tenth century.

There are other evidences which show that there were people from Qazwin who were among the companions of Imam al-Hadi (a).

It was famously said that people from Isfahan were extremist Hanbali Sunni. This was true to some extent, however, at times some Shi'a companions of Imam al-Hadi (a) were also residing there including Ibrahim b. Shayba al-Isfahani. Although, he was originally from Kashan, he may have been attributed as Isfahani due to the length of his residence there. We also have 'Ali b. Muhammad al-Kashani who was among companions of Imam al-Hadi (a) and was actually from Isfahan.[45] In a narration, there was a man named 'Abd al-Rahman who was from Isfahan and became Shi'a after he saw an act of wonder from Imam (a) in Samarra.[46]

Another narration includes a letter from Imam al-Hadi (a) to his deputy in Hamedan in which Imam (a) said, "I have recommended you to our friends in Hamedan."

Ghulat

The same as previous Imams (a), Imam al-Hadi (a) was also confronted with ghulat because there were some among his own companions.

'Ali b. Hasaka was the teacher of Qasim al-Sha'rani al-Yaqtini, who was among the heads of ghulat and was rejected by Imam (a).[47] Al-Hasan b. Muhammad b. Baba al-Qummi and Muhammad b. Musa al-Shariqi were also students of 'Ali b. Hasaka. Among those cursed by Imam al-Hadi (a) were Muhammad b. Nusayr al-Numayri and Faris b. Hatam al-Qazwini. In a letter, Imam (a) renounced Ibn Baba al-Qummi and said, "He thought that I have chosen him to prophethood and he is the gate to me." Then, Imam (a) addressed the Shi'a saying, "Kill him if you can!"[48]

Muhammad b. Nusayr al-Numayri who claimed prophethood was the head of the Numayriyya or Nusayriyya sect. It is said that he believed in reincarnation and lordship of Imam al-Hadi (a). He believed in the marriage with mahrams as justifiable, and also same-sex marriage of men. He claimed as being sent by Imam al-Hadi (a) as a prophet. Muhammad b. Musa b. al-Hasan b. Furat supported him. Followers of Muhammad b. Nusayr that were called Nusayriyya were among the most famous Ghali (exaggerating) sects who had some branches.[49]

Among other ghulat of that period were 'Abbas b. Sadaqa, Abu l-'Abbas al-Tarafani (Tabarani), and Abu 'Abd Allah al-Kindi, known as Shah Ra'is who were among the greatest ghulat.[50]

Imam al-Hadi (a) ordered Faris b. Hatam to be renounced. In a disagreement between Faris b. Hatam and 'Ali b. Ja'far al-Hamani, the Imam favored 'Ali b. Ja'far, he rejected and renounced Ibn Hatam. Imam (a) also ordered to kill Ibn Hatam and guaranteed the paradise and happiness in the hereafter for the killer of Ibn Hatam.

Among other ghulat who considered himself among companions of Imam al-Hadi (a) was Ahmad b. Muhammad al-Sayyari[51] who was regarded by most Rijal scholars as an exaggerator and whose religious beliefs had been corrupted. His al-Qira'at is among the most important references for the hadiths used in alteration of the Qur'an by some people.

Husayn b. 'Ubayd Allah al-Muharrar was also among ghulat who was considered as a companion of Imam al-Hadi (a). It is said in Rijal al-Kashshi that at the time when those accused to ghuluw were expelled from Qom, Husayn b. 'Ubayd Allah was among those expelled.

Martyrdom

According to some reports, Al-Mu'tazz al-'Abbasi poisoned Imam al-Hadi (a) and martyred him.[52] In the funeral of Imam al-Hadi (a), people slapped themselves and scratched their faces. They took Imam's (a) body out of his house and placed him in front of the house of Musa b. Bagha (the commander of Abbasids army). When al-Mu'tazz al-'Abbasi saw them, he decided to do the Funeral Prayer on Imam's (a) body. He then ordered that the people place the body on the ground and he prayed before Imam's (a) body, even though Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari (a) and some Shi'a previously had prayed by the Imam's (a) body before the funeral. Afterwards, they buried Imam (a) in one of the houses in which he was imprisoned. It was such a large crowd, that Imam al-'Askari (a) moved in the crowd with great difficulty. Then, a young man brought a horse for Imam (a) and people accompanied him to his house.[53]

Students and Companions

According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi, the number of Imam al-Hadi's (a) students and those who narrated from him in different Islamic sciences, exceeded 185 people. Below, some of the famous students of Imam (a) are mentioned:

'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani

According to al-Shaykh al-Tusi, 'Abd al-'Azim al-Hasani, whose lineage reached Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) by four generations, was a companion of Imam al-Hadi (a) and Imam al-'Askari (a). However, in some works, he is considered among the companions of Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a).

'Abd al-'Azim was a pious scholar in fiqh who was trustworthy to Imam al-Hadi (a). Abu Hammad al-Razi said, "In Samarra, I went to Imam al-Hadi (a) and asked him about permissible and forbidden issues and he (a) answered me. When I wanted to say goodbye, he (a) said, 'O Hammad! If you have a religious question in life, ask 'Abd al-'Azim in your region and convey my Salam (greeting) and regards to him.'"[54]

'Uthman b. Sa'id

Main article: 'Uthman b. Sa'id

'Uthman b. Sa'id became the student of Imam al-Hadi (a) when he was eleven and was promoted so quickly that Imam al-Hadi (a) mentioned him as his Thiqa and Amin (trustworthy).[55]

Ayyub b. Nuh

Main article: Ayyub b. Nuh

Ayyub b. Nuh was a trustworthy person and had a great position in terms of worshiping and piety; Rijal scholars have counted him among the righteous servants of God. He was a deputy of Imam al-Hadi (a) and Imam al-'Askari (a) who has narrated many hadiths from Imam al-Hadi (a).[56]

Al-Hasan b. Rashid

Main article: Al-Hasan b. Rashid

Al-Hasan b. Rashid whose Kunya was Abu 'Ali, was one of the companions of Imam al-Jawad (a) and Imam al-Hadi (a) and had a great position before them. Al-Shaykh al-Mufid regarded him among prominent fiqh scholars and great personalities, who were the reference for people to know the permissible and the forbidden; and there was no doubt about them.

When discussing agent and deputies of Imams (a), al-Shaykh al-Tusi mentioned al-Hasan b. Rashid as a deputy of Imam al-Hadi (a) and mentioned the Imam's (a) letters to him.[57]

Al-Hasan b. 'Ali al-Nsair

He is also known as al-Hasan al-Utrush. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi counted him among the companions of Imam al-Hadi (a). He was the grandfather of al-Sayyid al-Murtada from his mother's side.[58] Regarding him, al-Sayyid al-Murtada said, "His position and prominence in knowledge, piety and fiqh is brighter than the sun. He was the one who spread Islam in Deylam so that through him, the people there were rescued from ignorance to guidance and returned to the truth through his call. His great attributes and manners are beyond any count."[59]

Destruction of the dome of al-Imamayn al-'Askariyayn's shrine because of the explosion made by terrorists

Attacking Imam al-Hadi's (a) Shrine

In recent years, some attacks have been made on his shrine by extremist Salafi and Takfiri groups. The most destructive of these attacks, was the one made on February 22, 2006, for which al-Qaida claimed responsibility. It was made by placing 200 kg explosives in the center of the dome which destroyed the minarets of the shrine as well. Two years later, on March 13, 2008, the second attack on his shrine caused the full destruction of the remaining minarets. Again on June 6, 2014, ISIS made another vast attack towards Samarra toward the shrines of Imam al-Hadi (a) and Imam al-'Askari (a) which was blocked by people, the defenders of the shrine, and security forces of Iraq.

New dome of al-Imamayn al-'Askariyayn's shrine after its reconstruction

Reconstruction of the Shrine

After the destruction of the dome and minarets of the shrine, the reconstruction project on the dome began, using a sum of 100 million dollars in 2010 in Qom under the supervision of Sayyid Jawad Shahrestani. This dome has been plated with 23,000 gold bricks.

Also, the Darih of Imam al-Hadi's (a) shrine has been made by the efforts of Ayatollah Sayyid 'Ali al-Sistani. All the expenses of this project which includes 70 kg gold, 4,500 kg silver, 1,100 kg copper and 11 tons of teak-wood (lasting over 300 years) are provided by the office of Ayatollah Sayyid 'Ali al-Sistani.

Notes

  1. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 635
  2. Al-Nawbakhti, Firaq al-Shi'a, p. 135
  3. Ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawass, vol. 2, p. 492
  4. Al-Dakhil, A'immatuna, vol. 2, p. 209
  5. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 635
  6. Al-Kaf'ami, al-Misbah, p. 512
  7. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 649
  8. Al-Nawbakhti, Firaq al-Shi'a, p. 134
  9. Al-Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 4, p. 7
  10. Al-Dakhil, A'immatuna, vol. 2, p. 209
  11. Nawba is the name of a vast land in the south of Egypt
  12. Al-Khasibi, al-Hidayat al-kubra, p. 313
  13. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 649
  14. Ibn Shahrashub, al-Manaqib, vol. 4, p. 433
  15. Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqa, p. 207
  16. Al-Nawbakhti, Firaq al-Shi'a, p. 134
  17. Al-Ash'ari al-Qumi, al-Maqalat wa l-Firaq, p. 99
  18. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), p. 20
  19. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 381
  20. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 382
  21. Al-Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 4, p. 40
  22. Abu l-Faraj Isfahani, Maqatil al-talibiyyin, p. 478
  23. Ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawass, vol. 2, p. 493
  24. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 644
  25. Ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawass, vol. 2, p. 492
  26. Al-Katib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 12, p. 56
  27. Al-Mas'udi, Ithbat al-Wasiyya, p. 200
  28. Khan Sa'alik was a place where caravans would rest for a while.
  29. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 648
  30. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, p. 649
  31. Al-Tabrisi, I'lam al-wara, vol. 2, p. 126
  32. Al-Mas'udi, Muruj l-dhahab, vol. 4, p. 11
  33. Ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-khawass, vol. 2, p. 497
  34. Ibn Shahrashub, al-Manaqib, vol. 4, p. 435
  35. Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 2, p. 244
  36. Al-Saduq, al-Amali, p. 438
  37. Al-Tusi, Ikhtiyar ma'rifat al-rijal, p. 265
  38. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), pp. 84-94
  39. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), pp. 198-213
  40. Al-Tusi, Ikhtiyar ma'rifat al-rijal, pp. 607-8
  41. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), p. 320
  42. Al-Saduq, al-Tawhid, p. 101
  43. Al-Saduq, 'Uyun akhbar al-Rida (a), vol. 2, p. 260
  44. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), p. 317
  45. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), p. 352
  46. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), p. 123
  47. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), p. 518
  48. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), pp. 520-1
  49. Al-Nawbakhti, Firaq al-Shi'a, p. 136
  50. Al-Tusi, Ikhtiyar ma'rifat al-rijal, p. 522
  51. Musnad al-Imam al-Hadi (a), p. 323
  52. Dala'il al-imama, p. 409
  53. Al-Mas'udi, Ithbat al-wasiyya, p. 456
  54. Al-Nuri, Mustadrak al-wasa'il, vol. 17, p. 321
  55. Al-Tusi, Rijal, pp. 389,401
  56. Al-Tusi, al-Ghiba, vol. 1, p. 349
  57. Al-Tusi, al-Ghiba, vol. 1, p. 350
  58. Al-Tusi, Rijal, p. 385
  59. Al-Sayyid al-Murtada, Masa'il al-nasiriyya, p. 63

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Further Reading

See also

External Links