Hashim b. 'Abd Manaf
|Hashim b. 'Abd Manaf|
Great grandfather of the Prophet (s)
Hashim's tomb located beneath the dome of Sayed al-Hashim Mosque in Gaza
|Full Name||'Amr b. 'Abd Manaf b. Qusayy b. Kilab|
|Teknonym||Abu Nadla, Abu Zayd, and Abu Asad|
|Well-known Relatives||The Prophet (s), 'Abd al-Muttalib|
|Place of Birth||Mecca|
Hāshim b. ʿAbd Manāf b. Quṣayy b. Kilāb b. Murra (Arabic: هاشم بن عبدمناف بن قُصيّ بن كلاب بن مُرّة), is one of the distinguished men of Quraysh, and the great grandfather of the Prophet (s), and Banu Hashim are his descendants.
After Hilf al-Mutayyabin he gained the two positions of "siqaya" (giving water to the pilgrims [hajis]) and "rifada" (feeding the pilgrims).
Hashim was the founder of the two summer and winter trade caravans of Quraysh. He was the main element of greatness of Quraysh and they were very dependent to him; this was to the extent that after his demise they were afraid that other tribes will defeat them.
Feeding people in the time of famine in Mecca and founding the rule of sharing the benefits of trade with the poor, had made him famous.
He became famous and gained dignity after his father. He had a luminous face, and was the greatest man of Quraysh in the lineage and moral excellences. He was noble, bounteous, and hospitable, and his generosity was proverbial.
He had four brothers: 'Abd Shams, Muttalib, Nawfal, and Abu 'Amr; and six sisters. His mother was 'Atika bt. Murra b. Hilal.
Hashim and his brother, 'Abd Shams, were conjoined in the time of birth, and they were separated with a blade, so some said that there will be discord between the children of the two (Banu Umayya are descendants of 'Abd Shams).
The discord started when Umayya b. 'Abd Shams envied Hashim because of his fame and dignity.
|Family tree of the Prophet (s)|
One year, there was a famine in Mecca, he went to Syria (or Palestine) and brought a lot of bread on many camels, then he ordered to slaughter the camels and made a broth and he was crumbling the bread into the broth and giving it to people; so he became famous as "Hashim" (meaning the one who crumbles).
He was also known as the maker of the alliance of Quraysh, because he made alliances with the nearby tribes and kingdoms.
He was also told "'Amr al-'Ula'" ('Amr the grand) because of his grand characteristics.
Hashim had several wives and from them he had four sons and five daughters. Names of his sons were: Shayba known as 'Abd al-Muttalib, Asad, Abu Sayfi, and Nadla; and the names of daughters were: al-Shifa', Khalida, Ruqayya, Habiba, and Da'ifa.
His descendants are only from 'Abd al-Muttalib, although some children of Hashim had children but their offspring didn't continue. For Asad, there is only Fatima bt. Asad, the mother of Imam Ali (a), mentioned.
Positions and Activities
Feeding the Pilgrims
After the demise of 'Abd Manaf, Hashim and his brothers quarreled with the sons of their uncle (Banu 'Abd al-Dar) over the positions of Ka'ba. Each group allied with different branches of Quraysh (see: Hilf al-Mutayyabin). At last, without any battle, the two sides made peace and Hashim gained the positions of "siqaya" (giving water to the pilgrims) and "rifada" (feeding the pilgrims).
Hashim was very careful about his two responsibilities and the ceremony of hajj. Every year near the time of hajj he stood between Quraysh and invited Quraysh to regard the pilgrims and wanted them to feed the pilgrims in the period of hajj. Hashim expend a lot of wealth in the subject and other people of Quraysh paid their share to Hashim according to their budget.
In the period of hajj, he put watering places near Ka'ba and brought water to the pilgrims. He dug two wells in Mecca for people.
He gilt the door of Ka'ba.
Formation of Trade Agreements
Hashim was the first to form the trade caravans of Quraysh in winter to Yemen and/or Abyssinia, and in summer to Syria. Before it, the trade of Quraysh didn't exceed from Mecca, and Mecca was only a market for the non-Arab merchants. He was traveling for trade to Syria and Yemen, he formed the trade of Quraysh and with his encouragement, Quraysh started to trade.
He, in a letter to the ruler of Abyssinia, requested his permission for Quraysh to enter his territory for trade. Also he signed contracts with the tribes in the way of Mecca to Syria, so that the Quraysh caravan could pass their territories safely and in return the caravan of Quraysh would ship their goods for free.
Hashim was the founder of the tradition that every merchant of Quraysh share his benefits with one of the poor of the tribe. With this manner, all of the poor became rich, so among the Arab tribes no tribe was as powerful and respectable as Quraysh.
Hashim was the main element of greatness of Quraysh and they were very dependent to him; this was to the extent that after his demise they were afraid that other tribes will defeat them.
Hashim, in his last travel among 40 merchants of Quraysh to Syria, when reached Gaza, became ill and demised. After his burial, his companions brought his belongings for his children. Most of the history sources didn't mention his age in the time of demise.
- The material of this article is mainly taken from هاشم بن عبدمناف in Farsi WikiShia.