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Mu'adh b. Jabal

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Sahaba
Mu'adh b. Jabal
Personal Information
Full Name Mu'adh b. Jabal b. 'Amr b. Aws b. 'A'idh
Kunya Abu 'Abd al-Rahman
Muhajir/Ansar Ansar
Place(s) of Residence Medina, Yemen, Mecca, Syria
Burial Place Al-Shuna al-Shimaliyya in Jordan
Religious Information
Presence at Ghazwas BadrUhud
Migration to Yemen
Known for A member of companions of al-Sahifa al-Mal'una • an opponent of Ahl al-Bayt (a) over the issue of the caliphate • one of the first people who pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr
Notable Roles The Prophet (s)'s representative in Yemen
Other Activities A reciter of the Qur'an • a teacher of Islamic doctrines

Muʿādh b. Jabal b. ʿAmr b. Aws b. ʿĀʾidh (Arabic: مُعاذ بن جَبَل بن عمرو بن أوس بن عائذ) was one of the sahaba (the companions of the Prophet (s)), a reciter of the Qur'an, and an opponent of Ahl al-Bayt (a) over the issue of the Prophet's (s) successorship.

Mu'adh pledged his allegiance to the Prophet (s) in the Pledge of 'Aqaba, and attended the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud. The Prophet (s) sent him to Yemen in order to propagate Islam. Mu'adh b. Jabal was one of the sahaba who were called "Members of al-Sahifa al-Mal'una"; they signed a treaty in Hajjat al-Wida' (the last hajj in which the Prophet (s) was present) to the effect that if the Prophet (s) were killed or died, they would not let the caliphate go to Ahl al-Bayt (a).

After the demise of the Prophet (s), Mu'adh was one of the first people who pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr. It is said that at the time of his death, Mu'adh expressed his regret for not supporting 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) as the successor of the Prophet (s).

During the Life of the Prophet (s)

Mu'adh b. Jabal was from the Khazraj tribe, and his father was Jabal b. 'Amr b. Aws.[1] His kunya was Abu 'Abd al-Rahman. He was one of the Ansar.[2] He pledged his allegiance to the Prophet (s) in the Pledge of 'Aqaba[3] and was present in the battles of Badr and Uhud. After the Battle of Tabuk, the Prophet (s) sent Mu'adh to Yemen as a teacher of Islamic doctrines as well as his agent there. At this time, Mu'adh was just 28 years old.[4]

During the Caliphate of the First Caliph

Mu'adh b. Jabal is said to be one of the companions of the so-called "al-Sahifa al-Mal'una." They were five people who made a treaty in Hajjat al-Wida' according to which if the Prophet (s) is killed or passed away, they should not let any of his Ahl al-Bayt (a) become his successor. The parties of this treaty were Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa, 'Umar b. al-Khattab, Mu'adh b. Jabal, Abu 'Ubayda al-Jarrah, and Salim Mawla Abi Hudhayfa.[5] It is also said that Mu'adh was one of the first people who pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr, the first caliph.[6] During Abu Bakr's caliphate, he was appointed as the ruler of the Jund area in Yemen.[7]

Refusing to Help Fatima al-Zahra (a)

According to 'Allama al-Majlisi, Fatima al-Zahra (a) asked Mu'adh for help in the story of Fadak, but he refused to help her.[8]

Death

The grave of Mu'adh b. Jabal in al-Shuna al-Shimaliyya, Jordan

Mu'adh returned to Mecca after a while, but he then went to Syria. Finally, he suffered plague,[9] and died during 'Umar's caliphate at the age of 38.[10] He left no progeny. His grave is in "al-Shuna al-Shimaliyya" in Jordan. There are several hadiths in Sunni sources regarding the virtues of Mu'adh b. Jabal.[11]

Regret at the Time of Death

The book, Asrar Al Muhammad, cited Sulaym b. Qays quoting 'Abd al-Rahman b. Ghanam al-Azdi al-Thumali (Mu'adh's father-in-law) as saying that when Mu'adh was about to die, he expressed his regret for his positions about the successor of the Prophet (s); for not supporting Ahl al-Bayt (a) and supporting, instead, the first and the second caliphs.[12]

Notes

  1. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1402.
  2. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1402-1403.
  3. Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, al-Istīʿāb, vol. 3, p. 1402-1403.
  4. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 4, p. 418-420.
  5. Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilālī, Asrār-i Āl-i Muḥammad, p. 497.
  6. Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilālī, Asrār-i Āl-i Muḥammad, p. 220.
  7. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 272.
  8. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 29, p. 191.
  9. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 4, p. 418.
  10. Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 7, p. 273.
  11. Ibn Athīr, Usd al-ghāba, vol. 4, p. 418-421.
  12. Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilālī, Asrār-i Āl-i Muḥammad, p. 497-498.

References

  • Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd Allāh. Al-Istīʿāb fī maʿrifat al-aṣḥāb. Edited by ʿAlī Muḥammad Bajāwī. Beirut: Dār al-Jail. 1412 AH.
  • Ibn Athīr, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad. Usd al-ghāba. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1409 AH.
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ al-Baṣrī. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Edited by ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭāʾ. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1410 AH.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Edited by ʿAbd al-Riḍā ʿAlawī. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Wafāʾ, 1403 AH.
  • Sulaym b. Qays al-Hilālī. Asrār-i Āl-i Muḥammad. Translated to Farsi by Ismāʿīl Anṣārī Zanjānī. Qom: al-Hādī, 1416 AH.