Mu'adh b. Jabal
|Mu'adh b. Jabal|
|Full Name||Mu'adh b. Jabal b. 'Amr b. Aws b. 'A'idh|
|Kunya||Abu 'Abd al-Rahman|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina, Yemen, Mecca, Syria|
|Burial Place||Al-Shuna al-Shimaliyya in Jordan|
|Presence at Ghazwas||Badr • Uhud|
|Known for||A member of companions of al-Sahifa al-Mal'una • an opponent of Ahl al-Bayt (a) over the issue of the caliphate • one of the first people who pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr|
|Notable Roles||The Prophet (s)'s representative in Yemen|
|Other Activities||A reciter of the Qur'an • a teacher of Islamic doctrines|
Muʿādh b. Jabal b. ʿAmr b. Aws b. ʿĀʾidh (Arabic: مُعاذ بن جَبَل بن عمرو بن أوس بن عائذ) was one of the sahaba (the companions of the Prophet (s)), a reciter of the Qur'an, and an opponent of Ahl al-Bayt (a) over the issue of the Prophet's (s) successorship.
Mu'adh pledged his allegiance to the Prophet (s) in the Pledge of 'Aqaba, and attended the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud. The Prophet (s) sent him to Yemen in order to propagate Islam. Mu'adh b. Jabal was one of the sahaba who were called "Members of al-Sahifa al-Mal'una"; they signed a treaty in Hajjat al-Wida' (the last hajj in which the Prophet (s) was present) to the effect that if the Prophet (s) were killed or died, they would not let the caliphate go to Ahl al-Bayt (a).
After the demise of the Prophet (s), Mu'adh was one of the first people who pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr. It is said that at the time of his death, Mu'adh expressed his regret for not supporting 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) as the successor of the Prophet (s).
During the Life of the Prophet (s)
Mu'adh b. Jabal was from the Khazraj tribe, and his father was Jabal b. 'Amr b. Aws. His kunya was Abu 'Abd al-Rahman. He was one of the Ansar. He pledged his allegiance to the Prophet (s) in the Pledge of 'Aqaba and was present in the battles of Badr and Uhud. After the Battle of Tabuk, the Prophet (s) sent Mu'adh to Yemen as a teacher of Islamic doctrines as well as his agent there. At this time, Mu'adh was just 28 years old.
During the Caliphate of the First Caliph
Mu'adh b. Jabal is said to be one of the companions of the so-called "al-Sahifa al-Mal'una." They were five people who made a treaty in Hajjat al-Wida' according to which if the Prophet (s) is killed or passed away, they should not let any of his Ahl al-Bayt (a) become his successor. The parties of this treaty were Abu Bakr b. Abi Quhafa, 'Umar b. al-Khattab, Mu'adh b. Jabal, Abu 'Ubayda al-Jarrah, and Salim Mawla Abi Hudhayfa. It is also said that Mu'adh was one of the first people who pledged their allegiance to Abu Bakr, the first caliph. During Abu Bakr's caliphate, he was appointed as the ruler of the Jund area in Yemen.
Refusing to Help Fatima al-Zahra (a)
Mu'adh returned to Mecca after a while, but he then went to Syria. Finally, he suffered plague, and died during 'Umar's caliphate at the age of 38. He left no progeny. His grave is in "al-Shuna al-Shimaliyya" in Jordan. There are several hadiths in Sunni sources regarding the virtues of Mu'adh b. Jabal.
Regret at the Time of Death
The book, Asrar Al Muhammad, cited Sulaym b. Qays quoting 'Abd al-Rahman b. Ghanam al-Azdi al-Thumali (Mu'adh's father-in-law) as saying that when Mu'adh was about to die, he expressed his regret for his positions about the successor of the Prophet (s); for not supporting Ahl al-Bayt (a) and supporting, instead, the first and the second caliphs.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from معاذ بن جبل in Farsi Wikishia.