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Lady Fatima (a)

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Fatima bt. Muhammad
Sayyidat Nisa' al-'Alamin
Born c. (615-03-30)30 March 615 CE
(Jumada II 20, 8 BH)
Birthplace Mecca, Arabia
Died c. 29 August 632(632-08-29) (aged 17)
(Jumada II 3, 11 AH)
Deathplace Medina, Arabia
Place of Burial Medina, Arabia (The grave is hidden)
Father Muhammad b. 'Abd Allah
Mother Khadija bt. Khuwaylid
Brother(s) Al-Qasim, 'Abd Allah
Spouse(s) 'Ali b. Abi Talib
Son(s) al-Hasan, al-Husayn, al-Muhsin
Daughter(s) Zaynab, Umm Kulthum
Descendants Ahl al-Bayt
Other Titles Kunyas: Umm al-Hasan, Umm al-Husayn, Umm Abiha (mother of her father), al-Batul, al-Siddiqa, al-Tahira, al-Marziyya

Fāṭima bt. Muḥammad* (Arabic: فاطِمَة بنت مُحَمَّد) was the daughter of the Prophet (s) and Lady Khadija (a). She was Imam 'Ali's (a) wife, and Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) were her sons. Fatima is one of the Five Ashab al-Kisa'. She is one of the 14 Infallibles based on Twelver Shi'a beliefs. She was the only woman who accompanied the Prophet (s) in the Event of Mubahala with the Christians of Najran.

She did not pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr and opposed him firmly. After the Confiscation of Fadak and usurpation of Imam 'Ali's right in being the Caliph, she delivered a sermon in al-Masjid al-Nabawi, which is known as al-Khutba al-Fadakiyya. Soon after the Prophet's (s) demise, she passed away in Jumada II 3, 11/August 29, 632 in Medina. Then, she was buried in secret at night.

Fatima (a) was one of the eloquent Arab women. Ibn Tayfur (d. 280/893) has narrated her sermons in a book titled as Balaghat al-nisa' (eloquence of women). Al Abi Talib taught their children her sermon on Fadak.

Lineage, Kunya, and Titles

Prophet Muhammad (s) was her father, and her mother was Khadija bt. Khuwaylid.

Fatima (a) had several titles, such as al-Zahra', al-Siddiqa, al-Tahira, al-Radiyya, al-Mardiyya, al-Mubaraka, al-Batul, etc. Among these titles, al-Zahra' is the most famous one that sometimes comes along with her name (Fatima al-Zahra'). Literally, al-Zahra' means shining, radiant, and bright.[1]

She also had several Kunyas the most famous of which are: Umm Abiha, Umm al-A'imma, Umm al-Hasan, Umm al-Husayn, and Umm al-Mushin.[2]

Family tree of Ahl al-Bayt (a)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khadija
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Lady Fatima
 
 
 
Imam Ali
 
 
 
 
Umm al-Banin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Husayn
 
Imam al-Hasan
 
Lady Zaynab
 
Umm Kulthum
 
Muhsin
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Abd Allah
 
Uthman
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
'Awn
 
Ali
 
Al-'Abbas
 
Umm Kulthum
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Al-Hasan
 
Al-Qasim
 
'Abd Allah
 
Fatima
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
'Abd Allah
 
Zaynab
 
Ibrahim
 
Al-Hasan
 
al-Hasan
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
Ibrahim
 
 
Idris
 
 
 
Nafisa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sajjad
 
'Ali al-Akbar
 
 
'Ali al-Asghar
 
 
Fatima
 
Sukayna
 
Ruqayya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Baqir
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zayd
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Sadiq
 
'Abd Allah
 
Ibrahim
 
'Ubayd Allah
 
'Ali
 
Yahya
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Kazim
 
Muhammad
 
Ali
 
Ishaq
 
Umm Farwa
 
'Abd Allah
 
Isma'il
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Rida
 
Ma'suama
 
Hamza
 
Ishaq
 
Ahmad
 
Ibrahim
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Jawad
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hadi
 
 
Musa
 
 
 
 
Fatima
 
 
 
Hakima
 
 
 
Amama
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari
 
 
Husayn
 
 
 
 
Muhammad
 
 
 
Ja'far
 
 
 
 
 
Imam al-Mahdi
 
 


Early Life

Fatima lived in Mecca from her birth to Hijra (immigration of the Muslims to Medina 13 year after Bi'tha).

Birth

It has been narrated in Shi'a and Sunni sources that before her mother was pregnant with her, God ordered the Prophet (s) to avoid Lady Khadija (a) for 40 days. After 40 days of praying, fasting, and worship, he was taken to Mi'raj, where he ate heavenly foods, then he went back to Khadija and she got pregnant with Fatima (a).[3]

Fatima (a) was born in Mecca in the Prophet's (s) house. There are different reports about her birthday in Shi'a and Sunni sources. Sunnis believe that she was born five years before Bi'tha/605, in the year that Ka'ba was rebuilt.[4] Al-Ya'qubi writes that she was 23 at her demise.[5] According to this report she must have been born on the year of Bi'tha/610. This also matches al-Shaykh al-Tusi's opinion that Fatima (a) was 13 when she married 'Ali (a) five months after Hijra.[6] Al-Kulayni, however, says in al-Kafi that she was born five years after Bi'tha/615.[7]

Childhood

Fatima (a) spent her early youth under the care of her parents and especially her father.[8] Contrary to the local customs in which the newborn were sent to "wet nurses" in surrounding villages. Her childhood was synchronized with the time of formation of Islam, when Muslims were suffering the tribulations caused by polytheists in Mecca.[9] The Muslims were tested during this period by tough sanctions and tortures and were put in the economic blockade in a valley called Shi'b Abi Talib. They barely have enough food to eat and enough water to drink. Khadija and Abu Talib, the main supporters of the Prophet (s) both passed away during this period [in the year 10 after Bi'tha/619 which is also called 'Am al-Huzn (the year of sorrow)].[10] It was then that the Prophet (s) gave Fatima (a) the title of "Umm Abiha" (the mother of her father) due to the supports and cares she provided for her father.[11]

Immigration to Medina

Main article: Immigration to Medina

Later in this period, Muslims immigrated to Yathrib (later known as Medina). Afterward, the Hijra of the Prophet (s) to Medina was designated the first year of Islamic calendar.[12] After that the Prophet (s) moved to Medina, his family relocated as well. Al-Baladhuri writes, Zayd b. Haritha and Abu Rafi' were responsible for accompanying Fatima and Umm Kulthum on the way toward Medina."[13] However, Ibn Hisham says that it was al-'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib who accompanied them.[14]

In another report, al-Ya'qubi, who lived in the 1st/7th century, writes, "'Ali (a) took her (Fatima) to Medina."[15] Hadiths narrated by Shi'a support al-Ya'qubi's report.[16] For instance, al-Shaykh al-Tusi has quoted in his book al-Amali that the Prophet (s) had not entered Medina and had stayed in Quba, and said that he would not enter the city until his cousin ('Ali (a)) and his daughter come. According to this report, in addition to Fatima (a), Fatima bt. Asad -Imam Ali's mother- and Fatima bt. al-Zubayr b. 'Abd al-Mutallib immigrated with Imam 'Ali (a).[17] Anyway, they mounted the camel and the caravan was ready to depart, Huwayrith b. Nuqayd -one of the Prophet's enemies who insulted him frequently- frightened their camel so it bolted and threw them.[18]

Husband and Children

Marriage Proposal

Fatima had many suitors including many famous Companions of the Prophet (s) such as Abu Bakr, 'Umar, 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Awf. But the Prophet rejected them[19] giving an excuse that Fatima is very young. Furthermore, some of Muhajirun asked the Prophet (s) for her hand in marriage,[20] but he told them, "God is responsible for her marriage and no one else. I am waiting for God's decision for her [Marriage]."[21]However, when 'Ali (a) proposed, The Prophet (s) accepted his proposal immediately.[22]

When Ali (a) asked the Prophet (s) for Fatima's hand, he (s) said, "O 'Ali! Various men has mentioned her but whenever I told her I saw expressions of dislike on her face; but let me go to her [and ask her]." When the Prophet (s) entered the house, Fatima (a) took his clack and sandals and brought him water to wash his face and hand, then the Prophet said, "O, Fatima! you know the kinship, the merits and the antecedence in Islam of 'Ali. Besides, I asked God to marry you to the best person and the most favorite one to Him. 'Ali has just mentioned your name [for marriage], so what do you say?" She remained silent and did not move her head. When the Prophet (s) did not see expression of dislike on her face, stood up saying "Allah Akbar! Her silence is her acceptance." Then Jabra'il came to the Prophet and said, "Marry her to 'Ali b. Abi Talib. God has chosen her for him and him for her."[citation needed]

Later, he (s) told Fatima, "I have married you to the first Muslim from this nation."[23]

Marriage

Fatima (a) married Imam 'Ali (a) in 2/623 in Medina.[24] Imam 'Ali (a) sold his armor and gave about 400 dirhams to the Prophet (s) as her Mahr. Without counting them, the Prophet (s) gave a little portion of it to Bilal and asked him to buy perfume for Fatima; and gave the rest of it to Abu Bakr and asked him to prepare whatever she was going to need. The Prophet (s) asked a few other companions such as 'Ammar b. Yasir to help Abu Bakr in this regard. Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has mentioned the stuff that they bought and prepared for the lady Fatima (s) in a detailed list.[25]

Becoming the Prophets' Neighbor

Being away from Fatima, his beloved daughter who had kept the memory of Khadija alive was very difficult for the Prophet (s). So, few days after the marriage, he (s) thought of accommodating them in a house. Since preparing a separated house for them was hard, he (s) decided to accommodate them in his own house. However, it was not possible either; as his house was small and Aisha and Sawda (his wives) lived with him in the house. When Haritha b. Nu'man, one of his companions, knew that; he gave one of his houses that was near to the Prophet's house to Imam 'Ali (a) and Fatima (a).[26]

Children

She had 4 children by 'Ali (a); two sons, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, and two daughters, Zaynab and Umm Kulthum. There is no doubt among historians about the existence of these 4 children. Imam al-Hasan (a) was born on Ramadan 15, 3/March 4, 625 and Imam al-Husayn (a) was born in Sha'ban 3, 4/January 11, 626.[27]

Al-Muhsin

Main article: al-Muhsin b. 'Ali (a)

Shi'a biographers and some Sunni scholars have named another son for her, named "al-Muhassan". Al-Baladhuri (d. 279/892) writes, "Fatima gave birth to al-Hasan, al-Husayn, and al-Muhassan. Al-Muhassan died in his childhood."[28] He also reports, "When al-Muhassan was born, the Prophet (s) asked Fatima, what did you name him? She said, Harb. He said, his name is al-Muhassan."[29] Also 'Ali b. Ahmad b. Sa'id al-Andalusi (b. 384/994 d. 456/1064) the author of Jamharat ansab al-'Arab, writes: "Al-Muhassan died in childhood."[30] However, Mus'ab al-Zubayri (d. 236/851), who lived before al-Baladhuri and al-Andalusi, and authored Nasab al-Quraysh, did not mention anything about al-Muhassan.

Al-Shaykh al-Mufid counts Imam Ali's children from Fatima (a) as follows: "Al-Hasan, al-Husayn, Zaynab al-Kubra and Zaynab al-Sughra, whose kunya is Umm Kulthum."[31] Toward the end of the same chapter he adds "some Shi'a said that after the Prophet (s), Fatima had a miscarriage of a boy called Muhsin."[32] It has been narrated in Shi'a hadiths and some Sunni sources that she had the miscarriage during the events happened to her after the Prophet's demise.[33]

Lifestyle

According to Shi'a beliefs, Fatima al-Zahra (a) is the only infallible woman among the great figures of Islam. So, she constitutes a perfect role model for other Muslims.

Contentment and Simplicity of Life

Fatima (a) was content with minimum clothing and food. She lived a tough life and did all the chores around the house, such as, hoisting the bucket of water from the well, sweeping the house, grinding corn or wheat, and looking after children. Sometimes she moved the quern with one hand and put her child to sleep with the other.[34]

Ibn Sa'd has narrated that Imam 'Ali (a) said, "The day I married Fatima we had a sheepskin, on which we sleep at night and feed our camel on day, and we did not have any servant except than this camel by which we hoist water from well."[35]

Homemaking

Once 'Ali (a) told a man from Banu Sa'd, "Do you want me to tell you a story of Fatima and me? Fatima was the most beloved person by her father. She carried water in my house many times that its band had marked her chest skin, and moved the quern very much that there was calluses on her hand, and swept the house many times that the color of her clothes had changed to the one of the dust."[36]

In the married life, Fatima was responsible for indoor chores, such as cooking and taking care of children; while 'Ali was responsible for outdoor chores, such as buying and provision of firewood.[37]

With Husband

It has been narrated that when the Prophet (s) came to Fatima (a) and 'Ali's (a) house [for the first time after their marriage,] he asked Fatima (a), "How did you find your husband?" She replied, "The best husband…" Then he advised 'Ali (a) to take care of Fatima (a) and her to take care of him.

'Ali (a) said, "by God, from that day to the end of her life, I did not do anything that made her angry and did not force her to do something, conversely, she never made me angry nor disobeyed me. Truly, whenever I looked at her my distress and sadness were dispelled."[38]

With Father

As soon as the Battle of Uhud was over, she was informed that her father was injured. She and a group of women took water and food and went toward the battlefield. The women gave water to the injured and bandaged their wounds as she went to the Prophet (s). His face was hit by a stone that caused a severe bleeding. She washed the wound but the blood did not stop, so she burned a piece of wicker and put its ash on the wound to stop it from bleeding.[39]

In this battle Hamza, the Prophet's paternal uncle, and more than 70 Muslims were martyred. According to al-Waqidi, after the battle, every two or three days, Fatima (a) went to their graves at Uhud, mourned at their graves and prayed for them.[40]

Worship

Imam al-Sadiq (a) narrates from his fathers from Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a), "My mother stayed up all Friday's nights in her mihrab for worship".[41]

Al-Hasan al-Basri, a Sunni personality, says, "In this nation (Islam nation) no one was more prayerful than Fatima. She stood up for salat very much that her feet got swollen."[42]

Tasbih of Lady Fatima (a), is one of the most famous dhikrs which has been narrated in authentic book of both Shi'a and Sunni. This dhikr is one of the most important and common rites after the daily prayers. It consists of 34 times "Allah Akbar" (Allah is the greatest), 33 times "al-Hamd li-Allah" (all praise belongs to Allah), and 33 times "Subhan Allah" (Exalted be Allah).[43]

Moreover, Sayyid b. Tawus has quoted some supplications from her that are read after the daily prayers. Some other supplications, for eliminating problems, has been narrated from her as well.[44]

Selflessness

Imam al-Hasan (a) says, "My mother stayed up all Friday nights in her Mihrab for worship, and when she wanted to pray, she prayed for other Muslims but not for herself. Once I asked her, "O, mother! Why don't you pray for yourself like you do for others?" She said, "O, my son! The neighbor first, then the house" (the neighbor is more important than yourself).[45] Also, it has been narrated that when a poor woman asked her for help at her wedding night, she gave away her new clothes and wore her old clothes.[46]

After the Demise of the Prophet (s)

Despite of the well-known love of the Prophet (s) for Fatima (a) and his sayings about her merits, she went through very rough days after the demise of the Prophet (s) which finally led to her martyrdom.

Confiscation of Fadak

Main articles: Fadak and Sermon of Fadakiyya

After the Prophet's demise, Abu Bakr took over the caliphate and ordered the confiscation of the Prophet's inheritance (including what he had given to his children during his life).[47] Fatima (a) said that she was the Prophet's daughter, and like every other daughter, she will receive her father's inheritance. On the contrary, Abu Bakr said, "I have heard the Apostle of God (s) saying that, we, prophets, do not leave inheritance and what we leave is charity."

Fatima (a) was puzzled and shocked when she heard this. She wondered that how the Prophet (s) could have said this while she, his heiress, or 'Ali (a), his son in law and the nearest person to him, did not know about it. So Fatima (a) resisted against the Caliph and delivered a sermon in al-Masjid al-Nabawi in front of Muhajirun and Ansar and by reading verses of the Qur'an about offspring of prophets who inherited from their fathers condemned Abu Bakr's opinion and decision.

According to explicit words of Shi'a and some Sunni scholars, the Prophet (s) gave Fadak to Fatima (a) during his life after the revelation of the verse, "And give the relatives their right". (Sura al-Isra':26)[48]

Anger at Abu Bakr and 'Umar

According to the report of Sahih Bukhari, when Abu Bakr narrated from the Prophet (s) that prophets do not leave inheritance and what they leave is charity, Fatima (a) got angry at him and did not talk to him to the end of her life.[49]

Ibn Qutayba writes, "After that Fatima became angry at them, Abu Bakr and 'Umar came to her house for propitiating her; but when they asked for permission to enter the house, Fatima did not let them in. So they went to 'Ali and asked him for help. 'Ali took them to the house to Fatima; but Fatima turned her face away from them and did not reply their salam. After that Abu Bakr talked, Fatima asked them, "If I narrate for you a hadith from the Prophet, will you acknowledge that and act according to?" They said, "Yes." Fatima said, "I implore you to God, did you hear the Prophet saying "Fatima's happiness is my happiness and Fatima's anger is my anger; so, whoever like Fatima, my daughter, had liked me and whoever make Fatima happy had made me happy and whoever make Fatima angry had made me angry?"" They replied, "Yes, we heard this from the Apostle of God." Fatima said, "I call God and his angels as witnesses that you two have made me angry and did not made me happy and if I see the Prophet I will complain about you to him." Abu Bakr started talking, but Fatima continued her words addressing him, "By God, I will curse you after each prayer I perform"."[50]

Her anger and annoyance is important because not only Shi'a but also Sunni narrators have quoted the Prophet (s), "Fatima is a part of my body, whoever make her angry has made me angry."[Note 1][51] In addition, in this event the confiscators of Fadak denied her right publicly which implies that she had lied in her true claim that his father has given it to her in his life, although she was repelled from all impurities by God as Qur'an explicitly mentions in al-Tathir Verse (Sura al-Ahzab:33).

Analysis of Fadak

Al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr in his book Fadak fi l-tarikh (Fadak in history) counts the raising of the topic of Fadak by Fatima (a) as a political move.[52] He believes that Fadak is a symbol of a great goal and a full-scale revolution against the government of that time, which was founded in al-Saqifa by three people: Abu Bakr, 'Umar and Abu 'Ubayda b. al-Jarrah.[53] According to his analysis,[54] the lady Fatima manifested her opposition to the government in 6 stages:[55]

  1. Sending her representative to Abu Bakr for asking her inheritance (including Fadak and other things) and implying that Fadak was a part of the inheritance before saying that the Prophet (s) gave it to her as a gift;
  2. Direct involvement and severe conversation with Abu Bakr;
  3. Delivering a sermon in Masjid al-Nabi, 10 days after the Prophet's demise;
  4. Giving a speech for women of Muhajirun and Ansar when she was in her sickbed;
  5. A brief conversation with Abu Bakr and 'Umar and stating that she was angry at them when they had come for propitiating her;
  6. Making a will that she do not want who had oppressed her to participate in her funeral and burial.

Analyzing the Sermon of Fadakiyya, Shahidi writes, "It is clear that they ignored the core of her words and dealt with it as a speech that was only delivered for getting her inheritance. Obviously, she did not delivered her sermon for taking some date trees and sheaves of wheat. A household that give away the only food they have to feed the hungry, would not cry for their stomach. She wanted to keep the tradition (Sunna) and the justice alive. She feared that the thoughts of the Ignorance Era, which was hidden under the cover of Islam, comes to light again; and tribal prides comes to existence. Today is Banu Tamim's turn and tomorrow is Banu 'Adi's and then Banu Umayya's, who fought Islam with all they got and embraced Islam not by heart, but only by tongue as they did not have any other option."[56]

The author of A'lam al-nisa' narrates from 'Ali b. Muhana' al-'Alawi that Abu Bakr and 'Umar usurped Fadak from Fatima (a) because they were afraid that 'Ali (a) would become powerful and challenge them over the caliphate.[57]

Why Fatima Pioneered?

In his book, Fadak fi l-tarikh, al-Sayyid Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr writes,[58] "Starting the protest by Lady Fatima (a) had two important and positive elements:

  • The emotional aspect, as the Prophet's daughter, she was more influential eliciting emotions and reviving the memories of the Prophet (s);
  • The political aspect, if 'Ali had started the opposition, it probably could have led to a civil war, armed uprising against the government and, eventually, dissension within the Muslim nation."

Moreover, Imam 'Ali's neutrality about giving Fadak to its legal owners, after he took over the caliphate, supports the analysis that it was only a symbol for protesting and giving the power to its rightful owner.

Martyrdom and Will

Her father's demise, oppressing her husband, denying her right and most importantly, the events took place after the Prophet's demise, hurt her soul and her body. According to historical records, she did not suffer any illnesses before the demise of her father. She got ill after these events, though.[59]

About her martyrdom, Abu Basir narrates from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that, 'Umar ordered his slave, Qunfudh to hit her with a sheath, and that caused miscarriage of her unborn son, al-Muhsin. After that, she got very sick which led to her martyrdom afterward.[60]

Moreover, Shi'a and Sunni narrations have mentioned 'Umar's threat of setting fire to her house,[61] setting fire to her house,[62] pushing her against the wall by the door, hitting her by the door,[63] breaking her ribs,[64] and kicking her stomach,[65] each of which could have cause her martyrdom.[66]

Words in Sickbed

While she was in sickbed, a group of women from Muhajirun and Ansar came for visit and asked her, "O, the Prophet's daughter! how are you?" She answered them extensively,

"I have become, by Allah, to have feelings of resentment for your world, detesting your men; I have casted them after testing them, hated them after examining them. Thus, shameful is the defiling of honor, playing after being serious, striking the soft rocks, the slackening of spears; the foolishness of judgments and the misguidance of wants.
Evil indeed are [the works] which their souls have been sent forward before them [with the result] that Allah's wrath is on them, and in torment will they abide. Certainly it [Allah's wrath] has control of their affairs, held them responsible (for deserving it), and launched its disagreement on them.
So, may the unjust ones be done away with, cursed, and damned. Woe unto them!
How they have snatched it away from the foundations of the Message, the fundamentals of prophethood, and guidance, the place of descent for the Devoted Spirit, and he who is clever in the affairs of this world, and the Hereafter? (She means that they usurped 'Ali's (a) right)
Surely; [their action] is clear loss. Why were they hostile to Abu l-Hasan (a)? They took vengeance, by Allah, from him for his unbiased sword, his carelessness about his death (i.e., his unprecedented courage), his deadly assaults, his severe encounters, and his anger for the sole sake of Allah, Exalted is His Name.
By Allah, had they prevented each other from assuming the reigns of power, which Allah's Messenger (s) entrusted to him, he would have held it and led them smoothly, he would not have harmed them the size of a thread, nor, would his followers stammer, (meaning they would have lived in harmony under Imam 'Ali's (a) rule).
He surely would have delivered them to a spring pure, lush, abundant, and flowing over its banks; yet, its sides are not muddy. He certainly would have brought them back satisfied, and advised them secretly and publicly without providing himself with any availing thing.
Nor, would he favor himself with the worldly things with any gain, save that which would quench the thirst of the thirsty, and feed the hungry.
Surely, the abstinent would have been distinguished from the desirous, and the truthful from the liar.
Had the people of the town believed, and feared Allah, WE should indeed have opened out to them [all kinds of] blessings from heaven and earth; but, they rejected (the truth), and WE brought them to book for their misdeeds.
And, the wrongdoers of this generation; the results of their deeds will soon overtake them (too), and they will never be able to frustrate (Our Plan)!
Indeed. Come to see! As long as you live, time shall show you amazing events! I wish I knew what proof they have for that which they have done? On what foundation have they stood? On what reliable grip have they held? Upon whose progeny have they encroached and spoke against? Evil, indeed, is the patron and evil the companion!
They have exchanged, by Allah, the daring for the tales and the capable for the impotent. Thus, away with a people who (mistakenly) believe they are doing well (to themselves); for surely, they are the ones who make mischief, but they realize (it) not.
Woe unto them! Is he who guides towards truth more worthy to be followed or the one who finds not guidance (himself) unless he is guided? What then is the matter with you?
How do you judge? But-upon my life! It has already conceived (meaning that it is too late to do anything). So, wait until its fruit comes about. Then shall ye fill your buckets with pure blood and fatal venom? That day the dealers in falsehood will perish! And, the ones who come to follow shall know the evil which their successors have established! Then awaken the aversion in yourselves to your world!
Prepare your hearts for calamities, adapt yourselves to a sharp sword; an assault of a tyrant enemy, an overwhelming commotion, and atrocity from oppressors who shall leave your booty worthless, and your crops unharvested;
Alas! What a pity! How will ye be treated? But indeed it hath been obscured from your sight. Shall we then compel you to accept it when ye are averse to it?"[67]

(the translation is cited from the book Fatima the Gracious written by Abu Muhammad al-Urduni)

Date of Martyrdom

There is a consensus among Shi'a and Sunni historical sources that she was martyred in the year 11/632; but there are various reports about the month and the day. The reports varies between 24 days to 8 months after the Prophet's demise. Majority of Shi'a believe that she lived 95 days after the Prophet (s).[68] According to this she was martyred on Jumada II 3/August 29 -95 days after Safar 28/May 28, the day of the Prophet's demise.[69]

Considering different reports about her birthday, there are different opinions about her life time, ranging from 18 to 35 years. According to two authentic hadiths from Imam al-Baqir (a) and Imam al-Sadiq (a) that she lived 18 years, she must have been born in Jumada II, 5 years after Bi'tha (March 26, 615).[70]

Nocturnal Burial

Shi'a scholars unanimously believe that Fatima's body was buried at night.[71]

Al-Ya'qubi says in his history book that Fatima (a) was buried at night and no one except Salman, Abu Dhar and -according to a report- 'Ammar participated in her funeral and burial.[72] Al-Shaykh al-Tusi has narrated a hadith that when al-'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib suggested a respectful funeral for Fatima (a), Imam 'Ali (a) told him that Fatima had made a will to be buried privately and secretly.[73]

Ibn Sa'd, a Sunni scholar and historian, has narrated hadiths that Fatima was buried at night by 'Ali.[74] Baladhuri, also, reported this in two hadiths about the event.[75] Bukhari also, writes, "Her husband buried her at night and did not let Abu Bakr to attend her funeral."[76]

Ali's Words at Her Grave

After her burial, Imam 'Ali (a) flattened her grave to hide it, then he turned his face to the Prophet's tomb and said,

O, the Prophet of Allah! peace be upon you from me and from your daughter who has come to you and who has hastened to meet you. O, Prophet of Allah! My patience about your chosen [daughter] has been exhausted and my power of endurance has weakened, except that I have ground for consolation in having endured the great hardship and heart-rending event of your separation. I laid you down in your grave while your last breath had passed (when your head) "Verily we are Allah's and verily unto Him shall we return" (Qur'an 2:56) between my neck, and the chest.
Now, the trust has been returned and what had been given has been taken back. My grief knows no bounds, and my nights will remain sleepless till Allah chooses for me the house in which you are now residing. Certainly your daughter would apprise you of the joining together of your Umma (people) for oppressing her. You ask her in detail and get all the news about the position. This happened when a long time had not elapsed and your remembrance had not disappeared. My salam be on you both, the salam of a grief stricken not of a disgusted or a hateful person; for if I go away, it is not because I am weary (of you); and if I stay, it is not due to lack of belief in what Allah has promised the endures.[77]

(the translation is cited from the book Fatima the Gracious written by Abu Muhammad al-Urduni)

Burial Place

The place of her grave is unknown as a result of her will to be shrouded and buried at night. In historical and hadith books, some locations have been mentioned as her burial place, however, no one specifically knows where her grave is. Some of probable places are:

Merits

Sura al-Kawthar

Main article: Sura al-Kawthar

According to many Shi'a exegetes the word "kawthar" (meaning "abundant good") in the first verse of this sura refers to Lady Fatima (a). They argued that this sura was revealed about atheists who questioned Muhammad's prophethood because he did not have any descendants succeeding him. However, the Prophet's descendants continued through his daughter, descendants that include 11 infallible Imams.[82]

Mubahala

Main article: Mubahala

In the Event of Mubahala between the Prophet (s) and the Christians of Najran, Fatima (a) was the only woman and one of the four people accompanying the Prophet (s). Participation in this event is counted as a great merit among Muslims as there were only four people. The verse 160 of Sura Al 'Imran was revealed about this event.[83]

Divine Happiness and Anger

In various Shia and Sunni sources, the Prophet (s) has been quoted addressing Fatima, "Indeed God becomes angry for your anger and becomes happy for your happiness."[84]

Also, they have narrated that the Prophet (s) said, "O, Fatima! Are not you happy to be the lady of all the women of all the worlds and the lady of all the women in this nation and the lady of all the faithful women?"[85] The title "lady of all women of all the worlds" (Sayyidat Nisa' al-'Alamin) was given to her by the Prophet (s). Imam 'Ali (a) also, addressed her by this title while mourning at her grave.[86]

Infallibility

In his Musnad, Ahmad b. Hanbal quoted the Prophet (s) that the word "Ahl al-Bayt" (People of Household) in the Tathir Verse ("Indeed, Allah desires to repel all impurity from you, O People of the Household, and purify you with a thorough purification" (Sura al-Ahzab:33)) refers to Fatima and her two sons.[87]

In the chapter "Merits of the Companions" (Fada'il al-Sahaba), he narrates that the Prophet (s) stopped in front of her house on his way to the morning prayer, for six month and called, "O, Ahl al-Bayt! Prayer! Prayer! [and then he recited the verse] Indeed Allah desires to repel all impurity from you, O People of the Household, and purify you with a thorough purification."[88]

Shi'a believe that this verse demonstrate the infallibility of the Five, including Lady Fatima (a).[89]

Muhaddatha

Main article: Mushaf of Fatima

There are several hadiths stating that Fatima (a) was spoken to by angels. She was titled as Muhaddatha (means spoken to by angels) because angels spoke to her after the Prophet's demise. These inspirations were compiled by Imam 'Ali (a) under the title "Mushaf of Fatima".[90] However, it has been narrated that the archangel 'Izra'il talked to her, when he asked for permission to enter the Prophet's house on the last day of the Prophet's life.[91]

Moreover, al-Shaykh al-Saduq quoted Imam al-Sadiq (a) that Fatima (a) was titled as Muhaddatha because angels were sent down to her and spoke to her like Mary.[92]

See Also

Notes

  1. Ṣadūq, al-Amālī, p. 74, 187, 688, 691, 692; Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, p. 240; Masʿūdī, Asrār al-Fāṭimīyya, p. 409.
  2. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 43, p. 16; Ibn Shahr Āshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, vol. 3, p. 132.
  3. See: Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 16, p. 78.
  4. Ayati, Chikida-yi tarikh-i payambar-i Islam, p.35
  5. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, trans. Ayati, vol.1, p.512
  6. Ayati, Chikida-yi tarikh-i payambar-i Islam, pp.35-36; (cited from Misbah al-mutahajjid, p.561)
  7. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol.1, p.530
  8. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p.35
  9. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, pp.36-39
  10. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, pp.39-45
  11. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, pp.36-45
  12. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p.42
  13. Ansab al-ashraf, p.414, 269 as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p.42
  14. Ibn Hisham, Sirat al-Nabi, vol.4, p.29 as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p.43
  15. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol.2, p.31 as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p.43
  16. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p.43
  17. Al-Tusi, al-Amali, pp. 694-695
  18. Ibn Hisham, Sirat al-Nabi, vol. 4, p. 30, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, pp. 42-43
  19. Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat, vol. 8, p. 11
  20. Al-Ya'qubi, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 2, p. 310
  21. Qazwini, Fatimi-yi Zahra; az wiladat ta shahadat, p. 191
  22. Al-Nasa'i, Sunan al-Nasa'i, vol. 6, p. 62
  23. Shafi'i Shahrudi, Silsili-yi muzu'at-i al-Ghadir, vol. 8, p. 60
  24. Ayati, Chikida-yi tarikh-i payambar-i Islam, p.35
  25. Al-Tusi, al-Amali, vol. 1, p. 39, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, pp. 58-59
  26. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, pp. 72-73; Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 8, pp. 22-23
  27. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 242
  28. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, p. 402, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 242
  29. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, p. 404, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 242
  30. Al-Andalusi, Jamharat ansab al-'Arab, p. 16, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 243
  31. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, vol. 1, p. 355, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, 243
  32. Al-Mufid, al-Irshad, pp. 270-271; Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 243
  33. Shahristani, al-Milal wa l-nihal, vol. 1, p. 77, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 243
  34. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 84
  35. Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat, vol. 8, p. 14, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 84
  36. Ahmad b. Hanbal, Musnad, vol. 2, p. 329; as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 85
  37. Qazwini, Fatimi-yi Zahra; az wiladat ta shahadat, p. 236; Al-Majlisi, Bihar al-anwar, vol. 43, p. 31, as cited in Tafsir al-'Ayyashi
  38. Mahallati, Zindigani-yi hazrat-i Fatima, pp. 69-70
  39. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 78
  40. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 79
  41. Al-Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 1, p. 468; as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 93
  42. Al-Majlisi, Bihar, vol. 43, p. 84
  43. This is the most famous form of performing this Tasbih, but there are also other forms mentioned in some narrations. See Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 94
  44. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 94
  45. Al-Irbili, Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 1, p. 468, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 93
  46. Al-Shushtari, Ihqaq al-haqq, vol. 10, p. 401
  47. See Muntaziri, Khutbi-yi hazrat-i Fatimi-yi Zahra wa majara-yi Fadak, p. 392
  48. Al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, vol. 4, p. 177; Al-Haskani, Shawahid al-tanzil, pp. 438-442
  49. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, vol. 4, p. 142
  50. Ibn Qutayba, al-Imama wa l-siyasa, vol. 1, p. 31; Kahhala, A'lam al-nisa', vol. 4, pp. 123-124
  51. Al-Bukhari, Sahih, vol. 4, p. 210
  52. See Al-Sadr, Fadak fi l-tarikh, p. 49, as cited in Muntaziri, Khutbi-yi hazrat-i Fatimi-yi Zahra, p. 395
  53. See Al-Sadr, Fadak fi l-tarikh, pp. 48, 63, as cited in Muntaziri, Khutbi-yi hazrat-i Fatimi-yi Zahra, p. 395
  54. See Al-Sadr, Fadak fi l-tarikh, p. 87, as cited in Muntaziri, Khutbi-yi hazrat-i Fatimi-yi Zahra, p. 395
  55. See Al-Sadr, Fadak fi l-tarikh, p. 87, as cited in Muntaziri, Khutbi-yi hazrat-i Fatimi-yi Zahra, pp. 395-396
  56. Shahidi, Ali az zaban-i 'Ali, p. 37
  57. Kahhala, A'lam al-nisa, vol. 4, p. 124
  58. See al-Sadr, Fadak fi l-tarikh, p. 86, as cited in Muntaziri, Khutbi-yi hazrat-i Fatimi-yi Zahra, p. 396
  59. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, pp. 144-145
  60. Al-Tabari, Dala'il al-imama, p. 134; Al-Ganji al-Shafi'i, Kifayat al-talib, p. 413; Al-Juwayni, Fara'id al-simatayn, vol. 2, p. 35; as cited in Muqimi Haji, Zindiginama-yi Fatima, p. 61
  61. Al-Tabari, Tarikh, vol. 2, p. 443
  62. Al-Hilali al-'Amiri, Kitab Sulaym b. Qays, p. 150; Al-Mas'udi, pp. 154-155
  63. Al-Mas'udi, p. 146; Al-Saduq, Ma'ani l-akhbar, p. 206
  64. Al-Hilali al-'Amiri, Kitab Sulaym b. Qays, p. 153, 427
  65. Al-Mufid, al-Ikhtisas, p. 185
  66. Muqimi Haji, Zindiginama-yi Fatima, p. 61
  67. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, pp. 149-153; Al-Saduq, Ma'ani l-akhbar, pp. 354-356; Ibn Tayfur, Balaghat al-nisa, pp. 28-30
  68. Muqaddasi, Bazpajuhi-yi tarikh-i wiladat wa shahadat-i ma'suman, pp. 156-157
  69. Muqaddasi, Bazpajuhi-yi tarikh-i wiladat wa shahadat-i ma'suman, p. 170
  70. Muqaddasi, Bazpajuhi-yi tarikh-i wiladat wa shahadat-i ma'suman, pp. 173-174
  71. Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 158
  72. Al-Ya'qubu, Tarikh al-Ya'qubi, vol. 1, p. 512
  73. Al-Tusi, al-Amali, p. 245
  74. Ibn Sa'd, Tabaqat, vol. 8, pp. 18-19, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 158
  75. Al-Baladhuri, Ansab al-ashraf, p. 405, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 158
  76. Al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari, vol. 5, p. 177, as cited in Shahidi, Zindigani-yi Fatima-yi Zahra, p. 158
  77. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 1, pp. 381-382; This sermon is also narrated in Nahj al-balagha, which is shorter from al-Kafi's report.
  78. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 461; Al-Himyari, Qurb al-asnad, p. 16
  79. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib al Abi Talib, vol. 3, p. 365
  80. Ibn Sa'd, al-Tabaqat, vol. 8, p. 30
  81. Al-Majlisi, Bihar, vol. 42, p. 212, as cited in 'Uyun al-mu'jizat
  82. Makarim Shirazi, Tafsir-i Nimuni, vol. 27, p. 375
  83. Al-Tabrasi, Majma' al-bayan, vol. 2, p. 763; Al-Qurtubi, al-Jami' li ahkam al-Qur'an, vol. 4, p. 104
  84. Al-Hakim al-Nayshaburi, al-Mustadrak 'ala l-sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 167; Ibn Athir, Usd al-ghaba, vol. 7, p. 224; Al-'Asqalani, al-'Isaba, vol. 4, p. 378; Al-'Asqalani, Tahdhib al-tahdhib, vol. 12, p. 469; Al-Haythami, Majma' al-zawa'id, vol. 9, p. 203; Al-Tabari, Dhakha'ir al-'uqba, p. 39; Al-Khwarazmi, Maqtal al-Husayn, vol. 1, p. 52; Ibn al-Jawzi, Tadhkirat al-Khawass, p. 310; Al-Ganji al-Shafi'i, Kifayat al-talib, p. 364; Al-Nabhani, al-Sharaf al-mu'abbad, p. 125; as cited in Muntakhab fada'il al-Nabi wa ahl-i baytih, p. 263
  85. Hakim Nayshaburi, al-Mustadrak 'ala l-sahihayn, vol. 3, p. 170; Al-Nayshaburi, Sahih Muslim, vol. 5, p. 57; Ibn Athir, Asad al-ghaba, vol. 7, p. 223; as cited in Muntakhab fada'il al-Nabi wa ahl-i baytih, p. 265
  86. Al-Kulayni, al-Kafi, vol. 1, pp. 381-382
  87. Ibn Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad, vol. 1, p. 331; vol. 4, p.107; vol. 6, p. 292
  88. Ibn Hanbal, Fadai'l al-sahaba, vol. 2, p. 761
  89. Al-Tabarsi, Majma' al-bayan, vol. 8, p. 158
  90. Rahman Sitayish, Muhaddathi budan'i Fatima, p. 60
  91. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib al Abi Talib, vol. 3, p. 116; Al-Majlisi, Bihar, vol. 22, pp. 527-528, as cited in Rahman Sitayish, Muhaddatha budan-i Fatima, p. 60
  92. Al-Saduq, Ilal al-shara'i, vol. 1, p. 182
  1. فاطمة بَضعةٌ مِنّي، مَن آذاها فقد آذاني

References