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Yazid b. Maghfil

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Companion of Imam (a)
Yazid b. Maghfil
آرامگاه شهدای کربلا2.jpg
Tomb of the martyrs of Karbala
Full Name Yazid b. Maghfil b. Ju'f al-Midhhaji al-Ju'fi
Companion of Imam Ali (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a)
Religious Affiliation Shi'a
Lineage Midhhaji Ju'fi
Wellknown Relatives Al-Hajjaj b. Masruq al-Ju'fi
Place(s) of Residence Kufa
Martyrdom Day of 'Ashura,61 AH/680
Cause of Martyrdom Battle of Karbala
Burial Place Holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)

Yazid b. Maghfil al-Ju'fi (Arabic: یزید بْن مَغْفِل الجُعْفی) was among the companions of Imam Ali (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) and the martyrs of Karbala. He fought in the army of Imam Ali (a) in the battles of Siffin and Nahrawan. Yazid was with Imam al-Husayn (a) and was martyred on the day of 'Ashura. He is considered a brave person and among the Followers, and Shi'a poets.

Introduction

His complete name was Yazid b. Maghfil b. Ju'f ('Awf) b. Sa'd al-'Ashra (al-'Ashira) al-Midhhaji al-Ju'fi. He was the cousin of al-Hajjaj b. Masruq al-Ju'fi (among the martyrs of Karbala). He was a brave Shi'a and a competent poet.[1] In historical sources, his name is mentioned in different forms: Yazid or Zayd b. Ma'qil,[2] Badr b. Ma'qil,[3] Mundhir b. Mufaddal[4] and Badr b. Maghfil.[5] However, most sources have mostly mentioned him as Yazid b. Ma'qil and Yazid b. Maghfil al-Ju'fi.

Muhammad Taqi Shushtari believed that his name was altered in history and changed to become similar to the name of one of the enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) who was present in Karbala. He also rejected his companionship and participation in battles such as the battle with al-Khirrit b. Rashid (among Khawarij) and attributed them to other people.[6]

By studying historical and rijal books, it can be understood that in that period, there were two people with the name of Yazid b. Ma'qil; one of them was Yazid b. Ma'qil (Yazid b. Maghfil) al-Ju'fi who was among the companions of Imam al-Husayn (a) and the martyrs of Karbala and the other was Yazid b. Ma'qil b. 'Umayr b. Rabi'a who was among the advocates of Umayyads and was in the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd on Muharram 10th, 61 AH and was killed by Burayr b. Khudayr, a companion of Imam (a).[7]

Companion of the Prophet (s)

In Mu'jam al-shu'ara, Marzbani mentioned him among the Followers and his father among the companions of the Prophet (s); but Mamaqani wrote that, "he met the Prophet (s) and was among his companions and participated in the Battle of Qadisiyya during the caliphate of 'Umar.[8] Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani too mentioned Yazid b. Maghfil and his brother Zuhayr among the companions.[9]

Companion of Imam Ali (a)

According to historical reports, he was among the companions of Imam Ali (a) who was in the army of Imam Ali (a) and fought against the army of Mu'awiya. Also, during the time of Imam Ali (a), when Khawarij led by Khirrit b. Rashid revolted in Ahwaz and the coastal region, he helped Imam (a) and led the right wing of his army in the battle which led to the defeat of Khawarij and killing Khirrit.[10]

Companion of Imam al-Husayn (a)

During the uprising of Imam al-Husayn (a), Yazid b. Maghfil joined Imam al-Husayn (a) in Mecca together with Hajjaj b. Masruq and accompanied Imam (a) to Karbala. On the way, when Imam (a) arrived in Qasr Bani Maqatil and saw the tent of 'Ubayd Allah b. Hurr al-Ju'fi, sent Hajjaj b. Masruq al-Ju'fi and Yazid b. Maghfil al-Ju'fi to 'Ubayd Allah to invite him to join him. The two delivered the message of Imam (a) to 'Ubayd Allah b. Hurr and reported back his speech to Imam (a).[11]

On the Day of 'Ashura, Yazid b. Maghfil asked Imam al-Husayn (a) to go to the battlefield. After Imam (a) gave him permission, he went ahead and shouted the war cry below:

I am Yazid and I am Ibn Maghfil
And on my hand is a sharp sword and a cleaving arrow
By which I attack in the dust
In defense of Husayn (a), the praiseworthy and superior

Historians praised his fight on the day of 'Ashura. He killed some and then was martyred.[12]

Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani mentioned the war cry of Yazid b. Maghfil differently.[13]

In Ziyarah Texts

In Ziayat Nahiyat al-Muqaddasa known as Ziyarah al-Shuhada', a greeting is sent to him, "greetings be upon Zayd b. Ma'qil al-Ju'fi" and in another version of this ziyara, he is mentioned as Badr b. Ma'qil al-Ju'fi[14] and this mention is brought in some books of rijal.[15] Some scholars of rijal believe that Mundhir b. al-Mufaddal al-Ju'fi to whom greeting is sent in Rajabiyya ziyarat of Imam al-Husayn (a) is Yazid b. Maghfil.[16] Thus, his name is mentioned in these two ziyarat texts with two different names.

Notes

  1. Ṭabasī, Bā kārawān-i Ḥusaynī, vol. 1, p. 343-344.
  2. Ṭūsī, Rijāl, vol. 1, p. 101; Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib, vol. 3, p. 232.
  3. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 4, p. 181.
  4. Shams al-Dīn, Anṣār al-Ḥusayn (a), vol. 1, p. 88.
  5. Bilādhūrī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 3, p. 198.
  6. Shūshtarī, Qāmūs al-rijāl, vol. 11, p. 115.
  7. Ṭabarī, Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk, vol. 4, p. 328-329.
  8. Ṭabasī, Bā kārawān-i Ḥusaynī, vol. 1, p. 344.
  9. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 554.
  10. Ṭabasī, Bā kārawān-i Ḥusaynī, vol. 1, p. 344; Thaqafī, al-Ghārāt, vol. 1, p. 128.
  11. Ṭabasī, Bā kārawān-i Ḥusaynī, vol. 1, p. 344.
  12. Ṭabasī, Bā kārawān-i Ḥusaynī, vol. 1, p. 344.
  13. Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, al-Iṣāba, vol. 6, p. 554.
  14. Ibn Ṭāwūs, Iqbāl al-aʿmāl, vol. 3, p. 78.
  15. Khoei, Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth, vol. 4, p. 181.
  16. Shams al-Dīn, Anṣār al-Ḥusayn (a), vol. 1, p. 88.

References

  • Bilādhūrī, Āḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Beirut: Dār al-Taʿāruf li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1397 AH.
  • Ibn Ḥajar al-ʿAsqalānī, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī. Al-Iṣāba fī tamyīz al-ṣaḥāba. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmīyya, 1995.
  • Ibn Shahrāshūb, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī. Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib. Najaf: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Ḥaydarīyya, 1375 AH.
  • Ibn Ṭāwūs, ʿAlī b. Mūsā. Iqbāl al-aʿmāl. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, 1376 Sh.
  • Khoei, Abū l-Qāsim al-. Muʿjam rijāl al-ḥadīth. Qom: Muʾassisat al-Khoei al-Islāmīyya, [n.d].
  • Shams al-Dīn, Muḥammad Ḥusayn al-. Anṣār al-Ḥusayn (a). Beirut: Dār al-Islāmīyya, [n.d].
  • Shūshtarī, Muḥammad Taqī. Qāmūs al-rijāl. Qom: al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1419 AH.
  • Ṭabarī, Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-. Tārīkh al-umam wa l-mulūk. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, [n.d].
  • Ṭabasī, Nājm al-Dīn. Bā kārawān-i Ḥusaynī. Tehran: Pazhūhishkada-yi Taḥqḥqāt-i Islāmī-yi Sipāh, [n.d].
  • Thaqafī, Ibrāhīm b. Muḥammad al-. Al-Ghārāt. Translated to Farsi by ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Āyatī. Tehran: Wizārat-i Irshād, 1374 Sh.
  • Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Rijāl. Edited by Jawād Qayyūmī. Qom: al-Nashr al-Islāmī, 1415 AH.