Yazid b. Maghfil
|Yazid b. Maghfil|
File:آرامگاه شهدای کربلا2.jpg|
Tomb of the martyrs of Karbala
|Full Name||Yazid b. Maghfil b. Ju'f al-Midhhaji al-Ju'fi|
|Companion of||Imam Ali (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Wellknown Relatives||Al-Hajjaj b. Masruq al-Ju'fi|
|Place(s) of Residence||Kufa|
|Martyrdom||Day of 'Ashura,61 AH/680|
|Cause of Martyrdom||Battle of Karbala|
|Burial Place||Holy shrine of Imam al-Husayn (a)|
Yazid b. Maghfil al-Ju'fi (Arabic: یزید بْن مَغْفِل الجُعْفی) was among the companions of Imam Ali (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) and the martyrs of Karbala. He fought in the army of Imam Ali (a) in the battles of Siffin and Nahrawan. Yazid was with Imam al-Husayn (a) and was martyred on the day of 'Ashura. He is considered a brave person and among the Followers, and Shi'a poets.
His complete name was Yazid b. Maghfil b. Ju'f ('Awf) b. Sa'd al-'Ashra (al-'Ashira) al-Midhhaji al-Ju'fi. He was the cousin of al-Hajjaj b. Masruq al-Ju'fi (among the martyrs of Karbala). He was a brave Shi'a and a competent poet. In historical sources, his name is mentioned in different forms: Yazid or Zayd b. Ma'qil, Badr b. Ma'qil, Mundhir b. Mufaddal and Badr b. Maghfil. However, most sources have mostly mentioned him as Yazid b. Ma'qil and Yazid b. Maghfil al-Ju'fi.
Muhammad Taqi Shushtari believed that his name was altered in history and changed to become similar to the name of one of the enemies of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) who was present in Karbala. He also rejected his companionship and participation in battles such as the battle with al-Khirrit b. Rashid (among Khawarij) and attributed them to other people.
By studying historical and rijal books, it can be understood that in that period, there were two people with the name of Yazid b. Ma'qil; one of them was Yazid b. Ma'qil (Yazid b. Maghfil) al-Ju'fi who was among the companions of Imam al-Husayn (a) and the martyrs of Karbala and the other was Yazid b. Ma'qil b. 'Umayr b. Rabi'a who was among the advocates of Umayyads and was in the army of 'Umar b. Sa'd on Muharram 10th, 61 AH and was killed by Burayr b. Khudayr, a companion of Imam (a).
Companion of the Prophet (s)
In Mu'jam al-shu'ara, Marzbani mentioned him among the Followers and his father among the companions of the Prophet (s); but Mamaqani wrote that, "he met the Prophet (s) and was among his companions and participated in the Battle of Qadisiyya during the caliphate of 'Umar. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani too mentioned Yazid b. Maghfil and his brother Zuhayr among the companions.
Companion of Imam Ali (a)
According to historical reports, he was among the companions of Imam Ali (a) who was in the army of Imam Ali (a) and fought against the army of Mu'awiya. Also, during the time of Imam Ali (a), when Khawarij led by Khirrit b. Rashid revolted in Ahwaz and the coastal region, he helped Imam (a) and led the right wing of his army in the battle which led to the defeat of Khawarij and killing Khirrit.
Companion of Imam al-Husayn (a)
During the uprising of Imam al-Husayn (a), Yazid b. Maghfil joined Imam al-Husayn (a) in Mecca together with Hajjaj b. Masruq and accompanied Imam (a) to Karbala. On the way, when Imam (a) arrived in Qasr Bani Maqatil and saw the tent of 'Ubayd Allah b. Hurr al-Ju'fi, sent Hajjaj b. Masruq al-Ju'fi and Yazid b. Maghfil al-Ju'fi to 'Ubayd Allah to invite him to join him. The two delivered the message of Imam (a) to 'Ubayd Allah b. Hurr and reported back his speech to Imam (a).
On the Day of 'Ashura, Yazid b. Maghfil asked Imam al-Husayn (a) to go to the battlefield. After Imam (a) gave him permission, he went ahead and shouted the war cry below:
- I am Yazid and I am Ibn Maghfil
- And on my hand is a sharp sword and a cleaving arrow
- By which I attack in the dust
- In defense of Husayn (a), the praiseworthy and superior
Historians praised his fight on the day of 'Ashura. He killed some and then was martyred.
Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani mentioned the war cry of Yazid b. Maghfil differently.
In Ziyarah Texts
In Ziayat Nahiyat al-Muqaddasa known as Ziyarah al-Shuhada', a greeting is sent to him, "greetings be upon Zayd b. Ma'qil al-Ju'fi" and in another version of this ziyara, he is mentioned as Badr b. Ma'qil al-Ju'fi and this mention is brought in some books of rijal. Some scholars of rijal believe that Mundhir b. al-Mufaddal al-Ju'fi to whom greeting is sent in Rajabiyya ziyarat of Imam al-Husayn (a) is Yazid b. Maghfil. Thus, his name is mentioned in these two ziyarat texts with two different names.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from یزید بن مغفل جعفی in Farsi WikiShia.