Hani b. 'Urwa
|Hani b. 'Urwa|
|Companion of||Imam 'Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), Imam al-Husayn (a)|
|Place(s) of Residence||Kufa|
|Death/Martyrdom||Dhu l-Hijja 8, 60/September 12, 680|
|Cause ofDeath/Martyrdom||Execution by the order of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad|
|Burial Place||Kufa, Iraq|
|Activities||Participating in the Battles of Imam 'Ali (a), One of the supporters of Muslim b. 'Aqil|
Hānī b. ʿUrwa al-Murādī (Arabic: هاني بن عروة المرادي) (d. 60/680) is one of the greatest and closest companions of Imam 'Ali (a). He participated in the battles of Jamal and Siffin and was known as one of the important people in Hujr b. 'Adi's uprising against Ziyad b. Abih. He opposed Mu'awiya when he was asking allegiance of the people of Kufa for Yazid's caliphate. His house was the center of political and military activities since 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad entered Kufa. He played a very significant role in Muslim b. 'Aqil's uprising. On Dhu l-Hijja 8, 60/680, after the martyrdom of Muslim b. 'Aqil and by the order of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad he was beheaded.
Imam al-Husayn (a) was informed of his martyrdom, when he was in the middle of the way towards Kufa. Imam al-Husayn (a) cried on his demise, recited the al-Istirja' verse and asked for Allah's mercy upon him several times. Hani was buried alongside the Dar al-Imara (municipality) of Kufa, where it is now a very important and famous shrine for Shi'a Muslims.
Hani was very supportive to his tribe; for example, when Kathir b. Shihab al-Madhhiji, the governor of Khorasan province, was charged with embezzlement and fled to Kufa, Hani sheltered him and hence Mu'awiya rebuked him.
Before Muslim b. 'Aqil Came to Kufa
There is little information about this period of his life.
He participated in the battles of Jamal and Siffin and Imam 'Ali (a) used to consult with him in Siffin. When Imam 'Ali (a) dismissed al-Ash'ath b. Qays from leading the tribes Rabi'a and Kinda, Hani suggested that Imam 'Ali should appoint a person of an equal social rank for the position.
He opposed Mu'awiya when he was forcing people of Kufa ally Yazid's caliphate; he expressed his surprise about Mu'awiya's action. He frequently publicized the vices of Yazid. Hani was one of the key figures in Hujr b. 'Adi's uprising against Ibn Ziyad.
Role in Muslim b. 'Aqil's Uprising
According to a historical report, Hani was not very happy to host Muslim b. 'Aqil in his house at the beginning, but upon the arrival of Muslim b. 'Aqil in his house, he fully defended him. Hani's house was chosen because he was socially higher than al-Mukhtar and his house was considered as the center of political and military activities after the arrival of 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, and Shi'as would frequently go there.
Sharik b. al-A'war, who was one of Imam 'Ali's (a) close companions, a great Shi'a from Basra and had arrived Kufa with 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, was one of Hani's friends. When he got sick and entered Hani's house, he encouraged Hani to support Muslim b. 'Aqil. They planned to assassinate 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad when he was going to visit Him, however the plan was canceled because Hani did not want his guest to be killed in his house.
'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad appointed one of his Syrian slaves to watch Hani's house. Because Hani did not go to visit 'Ubayd Allah b. Ziyad, Muhammad b. al-Ash'ath, Asma' b. Kharija, and 'Amr b. al-Hajjaj al-Zubaydi, who were Hani's relatives and friends, took him to Dar al-Imara by deceit and guile. This made a gap between Hani and Muslim b. 'Aqil which later led to the defeat of Muslim b. 'Aqil's uprising.
When a group of Madhhij tribe heard that Hani was killed, gathered in front of Dar al-Imara, but they scattered by the false testimony of Shurayh who witnessed "Hani is alive".
According to al-Mas'udi's quotation, whenever Hani called his tribe for help, 4,000 cavalry and 8,000 infantry would answer him, and when he called his allied tribes, 30,000 warriors would get prepared to help him; however, when he was going to his death, none of those warriors replied to his call. On the Dhu l-Hijja 8, 60/680, after the martyrdom of Muslim b. Aqil, Hani was taken handcuffed to the butchers bazaar and was decapitated by 'Ubayd Allah's slave named Rushayd. Imam 'Ali (a) had predicted his death earlier.
Their bodies were pulled on the ground of Suq al-Kunasa and then hung.
Reaction of Imam al-Husayn (a) to His Martyrdom
The news of the martyrdom of Hani and Muslim b. 'Aqil reached Imam al-Husayn (a) in the middle of way to Kufa. Imam (a) cried for their death and recited the al-Istirja' verse and asked for Allah's mercy upon them several times.
Hani was buried near Dar al-Imara of Kufa. Today his shrine is connected to the Mosque of Kufa and is to the north of the grave of Muslim b. 'Aqil. His shrine is one of ziyarah sites of Shi'a. He has a ziyarah text narrated by Imams (a) in which he is addressed as the righteous servant of Allah and the companion of Imam 'Ali (a), Imam al-Hasan (a), and Imam al-Husayn (a).
- Baladhuri, Ahmad b. Yahya. Ansab al-ashraf. vol. 5, p. 255
- Tustari, Muhammad Taqi. Qamus al-rijal. vol. 1, p. 490
- Ibn Hazm. Jamharat ansab al-'arab, p. 406
- Ibn Qutayba, 'Abd Allah b. Muslim al-Dinawari. al-Imamat wa l-siasa. vol. 2, p. 4
- Zirikli, Khayr al-Din. al-A'lam. vol. 8, p. 68
- Ibn A'tham al-Kufi. al-Futuh. vol. 5, p. 40
- Ibn Muzaham. Waq'at al-siffin, p. 137
- The material for this article is mainly taken from in Farsi Wikishia.