Al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr
|Al-Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr|
|Full Name||Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr|
|Companion of||Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Imam al-Baqir (a)|
|Teknonym||Abu Muhammad, Abu 'Abd al-Rahman|
|Wellknown Relatives||Muhammad b. Abi Bakr|
|Place of Birth||Medina|
|Place(s) of Residence||Medina|
|Death/Martyrdom||Between 101/720 and 112/732|
|Burial Place||Qudayd between Medina and Mecca|
|Activities||Criticism of 'Aisha|
Qāsim b. Muḥammad b. Abi Bakr (Arabic: قاسم بن محمد بن ابي بکر) was among the elders of the Followers and one of the seven scholars of fiqh in Medina at the time of Imam al-Sajjad (a). He was the father of Imam al-Sadiq's mother. He was among the close and trustworthy companions of Imam al-Sajjad (a) and Imam al-Baqir (a). He has narrated many hadiths which have been referred to by different narrators.
Qasim b. Muhammad b. Abi Bakr was born in Medina in 36/656-57. His father, Muhammad b. Abi Bakr was the son of Abu Bakr, the first caliph. He was Imam Ali's (a) adopted son and among his special companions. According to a famous report, his mother was the daughter of Yazdegerd III, the last Sasanid king. Thus, Qasim b. Muhammad is regarded as the cousin of Imam al-Sajjad (a), therefore it is said that Yazdegerd had three daughters, one of whom married to Imam al-Husayn (a), one to Muhammad b. Abi Bakr and the third to 'Abd Allah b. 'Umar.
According to famous historical reports, Qasim b. Muhammad was the father of Imam al-Sadiq's (a) mother and Umm Farwa, Imam al-Baqir's (a) wife, was one of her daughters. Qasim had two sons whose names were Muhammad and 'Abd al-Rahman. He also had a daughter whose name was Umm Hakim.
Titles and Teknonym
In the View of Imams (a)
Qasim b. Muhammad grew up learning from Imam al-Sajjad (a) and was considered among his companions. Some also regard him as the student of Imam al-Baqir (a). There are expressions of approval and commendation about him in the words of Imams (a). Imam al-Sadiq (a) regarded him among the three elders who had a great position before Imam al-Sajjad (a).
Also, another report says:
- "Sa'id b. Musayyib, Qasim b. Muhammad and Abu Khalid al-Kabuli were among narrators and Shias who were trustworthy before Imam al-Sajjad (a)."
It is narrated from Imam al-Rida (a), about Qasim b. Muhammad and Sa'id b. Musayyib, saying:
- "These two were on the path of Alawi Wilaya and the true Islam."
Qasim b. Muhammad is among the hadith transmitters who is reliable and trustworthy in the eyes of both Shia and Sunni scholars. In most tarajim (biography books) and rijal books of both schools, he has been admired by kind descriptions.
In his Sahih, al-Bukhari has introduced him the most knowledgeable man of his time. Muhammad b. Sa'd, the author of Tabaqat al-kubra, quotes from Muhammad b. 'Umar al-Waqidi and introduces Qasim b. Muhammad as a great, trustworthy and pious faqih. Ibn Hibban, Ibn Khallakan, Ibn Hajar and some other Sunni scholars have mentioned similar descriptions about Qasim b. Muhammad in their books. These expressions suggest the credit of Qasim b. Muhammad before Sunni scholars.
In his rijal, al-Shaykh al-Tusi introduces Qasim b. Muhammad among Shia narrators of hadiths. Also, in his Majalis al-mu'minin, Qadi Nur Allah Shushtari quotes from Ibn Dawud al-Hilli, among Shia scholars of rijal, and introduces Qasim b. Muhammad a faqih and scholar among the companions of Imam al-Sajjad (a). Further, in his Bihar al-anwar, 'Allama al-Majlisi has mentioned Qasim b. Muhammad among Shia's trustworthy scholars. Also in his Qamus al-rijal, Muhamamd Taqi Shushtari introduces Qasim b. Muhammad among pure Shias.
- "I have not seen anyone in tradition more knowledgeable than him."
He was one of the seven scholars of fiqh in Medina and according to historical records, he was the reference for answering questions of his time. Also, his accuracy in keeping and transmitting hadiths is among his characteristics which rijal scholars have mentioned.
Criticism of Aisha
In his Qamus al-rijal, Muhammad Taqi Shushtari has quoted from Tarikh al-Ya'qubi that after the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan (a), when Aisha, riding a horse, shouted, "I do not allow anyone be buried in the house of the Prophet (s)!" Qasim who was still a teenager went to her and said, "O aunt! The memory of the Battle of Jamal is not yet forgotten when you rode a camel! Do you want to do something so that people would say, "once again she has got on the horse and has lit fire of another mischief?!"
About the date of his demise, historical reports are different mentioning years between 101/719-20, 102/720-21, 108/76-78 and 112/730-31. The more famous report about his demise is in 101/719-20 in a place called Qudayd between Medina and Mecca. Qasim had made a will that he should be buried with his worn-on clothes.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from قاسم بن محمد بن ابی بکر in Farsi Wikishia.