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Battle of al-Abwa'

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Battle of al-Abwa'
Date Safar, 2/August, 623
Location Al-Abwa' and Waddan
Result A peace treaty between Prophet (s) and Banu Damra
Cause To defeat the threat of Quraysh and Banu Damra
Belligerents
Army of Islam Banu Damra
Commanders
Prophet Muhammad (s) Mukhashshi b. 'Amr al-Damri
Strength
60 cavalry form Muhajirun Banu Damra
Casualties
0 0

Battle of al-Abwāʾ (Arabic: غزوة الأبواء) or Battle of Waddān (Arabic: غزوة وَدّان) was the first battle (ghazwa) of Prophet Muhammad (s) which occurred in Safar, 2/August, 623. The battle was launched in order to overcome the threats of Banu Damra (Arabic: بنو ضمرة). When the Damra tribe learned about the Prophet's (s) presence in the area, they asked for a peace treaty. On his way, the Prophet (s) made a peace treaty with them in al-Abwa'.

Al-Abwa'

Main article: Al-Abwa'

"Al-Abwa'" is a village near Waddan between Mecca and Medina.[1] Amina bt. Wahb, the Prophet's (s) mother, was buried in al-Abwa'.[2]

Date of the Battle

The battle, which is also known as Waddan, was the first battle between the Prophet (s) and polytheists which occurred in 2/623. Some people believe that the battle occurred in Safar, 2/August, 623,[3] and others hold that it occurred after 12 months of the Prophet's (s) stay in Medina (about rabi' I, 2/September, 623).[4]

The Prophet (s) appointed Sa'd b. 'Ubada as his successor in Medina and then left the city together with 60 cavalries of Muhajirun. No person from Ansar attended the battle.[5] The flag of the Islamic army in this battle was held by Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib.[6]

When the Prophet (s) arrived in al-Abwa', there was no one from the Quraysh there. However, Banu Damra had arrived in the area in order to make a peace treaty with the Prophet (s). Mukhashshi b. 'Amr al-Damri (Arabic: مخشي بن عمرو الضمري), the head of the tribe at the time, signed a peace treaty with Muslims.[7]

Contents of the Peace Treaty

In the peace treaty, it was agreed that:

  1. They should not gather armies against each other.
  2. They should not help each other's enemies.

Finally, after 15 nights from his travel, the Prophet (s) returned to Medina.[8]

Notes

  1. Aḥmad b. Rusta, vol. 7, p. 178.
  2. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 177.
  3. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, 1369 Sh, p. 8.
  4. Ṭabrisī, Iʿlām al-warā bi-aʿlām al-hudā, p. 72.
  5. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 392; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 288.
  6. Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 19, p. 187.
  7. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 392; Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh, vol. 7, p. 125.
  8. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 12. 1409 AH.

References

  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad b. Yaḥyā al-. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Edited by Suhayl Zakār & Riyāḍ al-Ziriklī. 1st edition. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1417 AH.
  • Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī, ʿAlī b. Abī l-Karam. Al-Kāmil fī l-tārīkh. Translated to Farsi by Abu l-Qāsim Ḥālat. Tehran: Muʾassisa Maṭbūʿāti ʿIlmī, 1371 Sh.
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad b. Manīʿ al-Ḥāshimī al-Baṣrī. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Edited by Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Qādir ʿAṭā. Beirut: Dar al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 1410 AH-1990.
  • Ibn Hishām, ʿAbd al-Malik. Al-Sīra al-nabawīyya. Edited by Sayyid Ḥāshim Rasūlī Maḥallātī. 5th edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Kitābchī, 1375 Sh.
  • Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Wafāʾ, 1404 AH.
  • Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Iʿlām al-warā bi-aʿlām al-hudā. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmiyya, [n.d].
  • Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Maghāzī. Edited by Marsden Jones. London: [n.d].
  • Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Maghāzī. 3rd edition. Beirut: Muʾassisa al-Aʿlamī. 1409 AH.
  • Wāqidī, Muḥammad b. ʿUmar al-. Al-Maghāzī. Translated to Farsi by Maḥmūd Mahdawī Dāmaghānī. 2nd edition. Tehran: Markaz-i Nashr-i Dānishgāhī, 1369 Sh.
  • www.pajoohe.com.