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Battle of Uhud

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Battle of Uhud
Uhud.jpg
Date 3/625
Location Uhud
Coordinates 24°30′13″N 39°36′43″E / 24.50361°N 39.61194°E / 24.50361; 39.61194
Result Victory of Quraysh
Cause Revenge of battle of Badr
Belligerents
Muslims Polytheists of Quraysh
Commanders
The Prophet (s) Abu Sufyan
Strength
700 3000
Casualties
70 martyrs more than 20 were killed
Early Islam
Hira cave-entrance.jpg

The Battle of Uhud (Arabic:غزوة اُحُد) was a famous Ghazwa of Prophet Muhammad (s) against the polytheists of Mecca in 3/625. Quraysh marched out toward Medina, as they desired to avenge their losses in the Battle of Badr while Abu Sufyan was the commander of the army. Prophet Muhammad (s) and senior members of Ansar and Muhajirun planned to fight against Quraysh within Medina and never left the city; on the other hand young Muslims and also Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, Prophet's uncle, were willing to fight outside the city. Finally Prophet Muhammad (s) decided to accept the wishes of the latter. At first, Muslims defeated Meccans, but a part of Muslim archers having 'Abd Allah b. Jubayr as their commander on Mount 'Aynayn on the left flank of Uhud, left their assigned posts and faced a surprise attack from Meccans which led to defeat of Muslims. They faced a serious defeat with approximately 70 martyred Muslims including Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib who got mutilated, even Prophet Muhammad (s) was badly injured on his face and his tooth.

Meccan Army Marched Toward Medina

Meccans tried to avenge their losses in the Battle of Badr, so they marched toward Medina in 3/625, while Abu Sufyan was leading their army. He sent 'Amr b. al-'As and some others to motivate and gather other tribes for the battle.[1] Then they marched toward Medina with three thousand soldiers. According to Al-Waqidi's narration, Prophet Muhammad (s) was secretly informed about Quraysh's army that marched toward Medina by al-'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, his uncle, in Quba near Medina. But other hadiths did not mention this letter to Prophet Muhammad (s).[2]

On Shawwal 5, Meccan army arrived Urayd area near Uhud.[3] One of prophet's companions informed him about the number and military warfare of enemies. Some senior members of Banu Khazraj and Banu Aws including Sa'd b. Mu'adh, Usayd b. Hudayr and Sa'd b. 'Ubada were guarding in the mosque to early morning of Friday in the fear of Quraysh attack.[4]

Consulting with Sahaba

On Friday Prophet Muhammad (s) hold a meeting over how best to defend against the enemies. Prophet Muhammad (s) and many of senior members of Ansar and Muhajirun suggested that it would be safer to fight against them within Medina, while young Muslims and also Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib were arguing to fight with them outside Medina. Finally Prophet decided to accept the wishes of the latter.[5]

Leaving Medina

Prophet Muhammad (s) prepared his army and marched toward Uhud with one thousand soldiers.[6] They spent the night at Shaykhan, halfway between Medina and Uhud, and continued their way in the morning.[7]

Departure of 'Abd Allah b. 'Ubayy

Shortly after Prophet's soldiers settled in Uhud, 'Abd Allah b. 'Ubayy and a number of Muslim soldiers withdrew their support for Prophet Muhammad (s) and returned to Medina, because they were discontent with the plan of fighting outside of Medina. Therefore, the number of Muslim soldiers reduced to 700 as they were ready to face the Meccans' army.[8]

Preparation for the Battle

Timeline of Imam 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) life
Mecca
599 Birth
610 The first person who believes in Islam
619 Demise of Abu Talib (Father)
622 Laylat al-Mabit: sleeping in the place of the Prophet (s)
Medina
622 Hijra to Medina
624/2 Participating in the Battle of Badr
625/3 Participating in the Battle of Uhud
626/4 Demise of Fatima bt. Asad (Mother)
627/5 Participating in the Battle of Khandaq and killing 'Amr b. 'Abd Wadd
628/6 Writing the content of Hudaybiyya peace treaty
629/7 Victorious of Khiybar castle in the Battle of Khaybar
630/8 Participating in Conquest of Mecca and breaking idols by the order of the Prophet (s)
630/9 Successor of the Prophet (s) in Medina in the Battle of Tabuk
632/10 Participating in Hajjat al-Wida'
632/10 Event of Ghadir
632/11 Demise of the Prophet (s) and his burial by Imam 'Ali (a)
Three caliphs period
632/11 Incident of Saqifa and beginning of Caliphate of Abu Bakr
632/11 Martyrdom of Lady Fatima (a)
634/13 Beginning of Caliphate of 'Umar b. al-Khattab
644/23 Participating in Six-Member Council
644/23 Beginning of Caliphate of 'Uthman b. 'Affan
Caliphate
655/35 Beginning of his Caliphate
656/36 The Battle of Jamal
657/37 The Battle of Siffin
658/38 The Battle of Nahrawan
661/40 Martyrdom

Prophet Muhammad (s) stationed Muslim soldiers on the slopes of Mount Uhud and facing Medina so that they could face enemies while protected by the towering Mount Uhud. He assigned a group of archers on Mount 'Aynayn with 'Abd Allah b. Jubayr as their commander.[9] The Meccan army positioned itself facing Muslim soldiers, Khalid b. al-Walid and Ikrima b. Abi Jahl were commanders of right and left flanks of their army.[10] Before the battle commence, Prophet Muhammad (s) gave a speech to Muslim soldiers and ordered archers to never leave their positions under any circumstances and only protect the other soldiers.[11]

Initiative Victory of Muslims

At the beginning Talha b. Abi Talha, advanced and challenged Muslims to a duel, then 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) rushed forth and struck Talha down. Afterward Muslims became joyful and attacked through the lines of Meccans.[12] The Meccan army was pushed back and they ran away.[13]

Defeat of Muslims

Muslim archers who were appointed on the left flank disobeyed Prophet's orders and they ran downhill to load plunder. 'Abd Allah b. Jubayr tried to make them return to their posts but it was unsuccessful. Earlier Khalid b. al-Walid had some ineffective attacks to the left flank of Muslim army.[14] When they noticed the scattered Muslim soldiers, they attacked again alongside Ikrima b. Abi Jahl to the remaining soldiers on the hill and the rear.[15] Rumors were circulating that Prophet Muhammad (s) was perished.[16] It brought disorder to Muslim army, they scattered all over the place, even some started climbing the mountain.[17] Prophet Muhammad (s) was wounded due to the stones were thrown at him which caused injuries on his forehead and his tooth.[18] Prophet and a few remaining companions[19] managed to retreat and find a safe place on the mountain.[20]

As Al-Shaykh al-Mufid narrated from 'Abd Allah b. Mas'ud: "Muslim soldiers were scattered and they tried to run away, only 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a) stayed near Prophet Muhammad (s) to protect him. Then some other Muslims joined Prophet (s) including 'Asim b. Thabit, Abu Dujana, and Sahl b. Hunayf."[21]

Martyrdom of Hamza

Tomb of Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib before demolishing

Meccans swept through Muslim soldiers and martyred many, most importantly Hamza b. 'Abd al-Muttalib. Jubayr b. Mut'im's slave, Wahshi b. Harb, threw Hamza down with a spear and then cut open his corpse, taking out his liver for Hind, Abu Sufyan's wife. She attempted to eat his liver, because Hamza had killed her father before. After Hamza was martyred and mutilated, Prophet Muhammad (s) was dejected and irritated.[22]

Number of Martyred Muslims

Muslims buried the dead and Prophet Muhammad (s) performed prayer on each one of the martyred soldiers and also seventy times on Hamza's body.[23] The names of martyred Muslims are exclusively stated in old books; it is also said around twenty Meccans were killed.

Abu Sufyan Reaction

After fighting had ceased, Abu Sufyan came near Muslims who were gathered on slopes of hills, after praising idols he said, this war was a respond to the battle of Badr.[24]

Date

The Battle of Uhud was fought on Saturday, Shawwal 7, 3/March 23, 625.[25] It is also said it was on Shawwal 15, 3/March 31, 625.[26]

Related Verses

According to the sources, some verses were revealed on this battle, most importantly verses 121 to 129 of Qur'an 3.[27] In addition, some hadiths are mentioned from Prophet Muhammad (s) on this battle.[28] Afterward Prophet Muhammad (s) sometimes visited the burial site of martyred Muslims in Uhud.[29] Since then, travelers visit their burial site on the way to Medina.

Further Reading

Notes

  1. Ibn Isḥāq, al-Sīyar wa l-maghāzī, p. 322-323; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 201
  2. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 203-204
  3. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 206-207
  4. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 208
  5. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 210, 213
  6. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-Nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 63; Ibn Isḥāq, al-Sīyar wa l-Maghāzī, p. 326 has mentioned the number as 700.
  7. see Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 216-218
  8. Zuhrī, al-Maghāzī l-Nabawīyya, p. 77; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 219; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-Nabawīyya, vol. 1, p. 64
  9. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 219-220
  10. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 220
  11. Ibn Isḥāq, al-Sīyar wa l-maghāzī, p. 326; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 224-225; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-Nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 65-66; Bukhārī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 5, p. 29
  12. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 225-226
  13. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 229; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 40-41
  14. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 229
  15. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 232; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 41-42
  16. Zuhrī, al-Maghāzī l-Nabawīyya, p. 77; Ibn Isḥāq, al-Sīyar wa l-maghāzī, p. 27; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 232
  17. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 235
  18. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 244; see Zuhrī, al-Maghāzī l-Nabawīyya, p. 77; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh, vol. 2, p. 519
  19. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 240
  20. Ibn Isḥāq, al-Sīyar wa l-maghāzī, p. 230; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-Nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 83; Ṭabarī, Tārīkh, vol. 2, p. 518
  21. Āyatī, Tārīkh-i Payāmbar-i Islām, p. 256
  22. Ibn Isḥāq, al-Sīyar wa l-maghāzī, p. 329-333; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 285-286, 290
  23. Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-Nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 97; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 310; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 44; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, p. 336
  24. Zuhrī, al-Maghāzī l-Nabawīyya, p. 78; Ibn Isḥāq, al-Sīyar wa l-maghāzī, p. 329-333; Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 297-297; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 327
  25. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 199; Ibn Saʿd, al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā, vol. 2, p. 36; Balādhurī, Ansāb al-ashrāf, vol. 1, p. 311-312
  26. Ibn Isḥāq, al-Sīyar wa l-maghāzī, p. 324; Ibn Ḥabīb, al-Muḥabbar, p. 112-113; see Ṭabarī, Tārīkh, vol. 2, p. 534
  27. Wāqidī, al-Maghāzī, vol. 1, p. 319; Ibn Hishām, al-Sīra al-Nabawīyya, vol. 2, p. 106; Ṭabarī, Tāfsīr, vol. 4, p. 45; Ṭabāṭabāʾī, al-Mīzān, vol. 3 and 4
  28. Bukhārī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 5, p. 39-40; Muʿjam ma stuʿjam, vol. 1, p. 117
  29. see Bukhārī, al-Ṣaḥīḥ, vol. 5, p. 39-40

References

  • Āyatī, Muḥammad Ibrāhīm. Tārīkh-i Payāmbar-i Islām. Ed. Abū l-Qāsim Gurjī. Tehran, Intishārāt-i Danishgāh-i Tehran, 1378 Sh.
  • Balādhurī, Aḥmad. Ansāb al-ashrāf. Ed. Muḥammad Ḥumayd Allah. Cairo, 1959
  • Bukhārī, Muḥammad. Al-Ṣaḥīḥ. Cairo, 1315 AH.
  • Ibn Hishām, ʿAbd al-Malik. Al-Sīra al-Nabawīyya. Ed. Muṣṭafā Saqqā et. al. Cairo, 1357 AH/1955.
  • Ibn Isḥāq, Muḥammad. Al-Sīyar wa l-maghāzī. Ed. Suhayl Zakār. Damascus, 1398 AH/1978.
  • Ibn Ḥabīb, Muḥammad. A l-Muḥabbar. Ed. Ilse Lichtenstaedter. Hyderabad, 1361 AH/1978
  • Ibn Saʿd, Muḥammad. Al-Ṭabaqāt al-kubrā. Beirut, Dār Ṣādir.
  • Ṭabarī, Tāfsīr.
  • Ṭabarī, Tārīkh.
  • Wāqidī, Muḥammad. Al-Maghāzī. Ed. Marsden Jones. London, 1966 AH.
  • Zuhrī, Muḥammad. Al-Maghāzī l-Nabawīyya. Ed. Suhayl Zakār. Damascus, 1401 AH/1981.