Members of the Six-Member Council|
|selecting the third caliph|
The Six-Member Council refers to the council 'Umar b. al-Khattab (d. 23/644) assigned for selecting the next caliph, which led to 'Uthman b. 'Affan being elected as the third caliph of Muslims. 'Umar had obliged all the people to conform to the council's final agreement and commanded to cut off any opponents' head. Imam Ali (a) had anticipated the council would select 'Uthman since the appointed members all had the same bias.
The Story of the Council
'Umar b. al-Khattab was killed in 23/644 by someone by the name of Firuz or Abu Lu'lu', the slave of Mughira b. Shu'ba. According to some sources, he was injured in Dhu l-Hijja 26, 23/November 3, 644 and died after three days. While he was in bed because of his injury, 'Umar b. al-Khattab began to think about his successor. He believed if Mu'adh b. Jabal, Abu 'Ubayda al-Jarrah, and Salim Mawla Hudhayfa had been alive, he would have handed the caliphate to them. Yet none of the mentioned people were present at that time; therefore he devised a new plan for selecting the next caliph.
Establishment of the Council
After the Holy Prophet's (s) demise, some of the Prophet's companions gathered together in a place called Saqifa and selected Abu Bakr as the caliph of Muslims (incident of Saqifa), disregarding the Event of Ghadir in which the Prophet (s) had introduced Imam Ali (a) to the Muslims as the caliph. The companions made people pledge allegiance (bay'a) to Abu Bakr in different ways. They reasoned that the selection of the caliph must be assigned to people. It is people who choose their Imam. However, Abu Bakr reversed his opinion by selecting Umar as his successor at the end of his lifetime.
Umar chose a new method, confessing that selecting Abu Bakr had not been Muslims' option. He declared Muslims must participate in choosing their own caliph from now on. Consequently, he established a council comprising of six people who would select one of themselves as the caliph by consulting with each other. The followings are the members of the council: Ali b. Abi Talib (a), 'Uthman b. 'Affan, Talha b. 'Ubayd Allah, Zubayr b. 'Awam, Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas, and 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Awf.
Based on Umar's opinion, more votes for a person results in his caliphate. If there was a disagreement between the two groups of three on a candidate, the opinion of 'Abd al-Rahman group is preferred. Umar also commanded to cut off the head of any member opposing the idea of the majority. If there was a dispute between the two groups, the group who were opposed to Abd al-Rahman's vote must be castigated by cutting off their heads. Another command of him was to cut all the members' head if they were unable to select the caliphate after three days. Fifty people from Ansar were responsible to monitor conformation to Umar's will.
The Bias of Council
Some say it was predictable that the council would elect Uthman. As Imam Ali (a) had anticipated, Sa'd would not disagree with his cousin 'Abd al-Rahman. On the other hand, 'Abd al-Rahman, who was 'Uthman's brother-in-law would vote for him. Concerning these factors, even if both Talha and Zubayr were Imam Ali (a)'s advocates, it would be useless; since Abd al-Rahman was a supporter of Uthman.
Sa'd stated he had the same vote with Abd al-Rahman, whatever he decides. Zubayr gave up nominating for caliphate in favor of Imam Ali (a). Abd al-Rahman announced he was not seeking caliphate. Talha, who was Abu Bakr's cousin and Imam Ali (a)'s opponent, gave up nominating in favor of 'Uthman. Therefore, the only candidates were Imam Ali (a) and 'Uthman, meaning 'Abd al-Rahman's vote became very important and notable.
Abd al-Rahman's Decision
Abd al-Rahman b. Awf consulted with people, especially with the elite and rulers. Ultimately, he declared his decision. He asked Imam Ali (a) if he could act according to the Holy Qur'an, the Prophet's (s) tradition (sunna), and Abu Bakr's and 'Umar's approach in caliphate. Imam Ali (a) responded: "I hope I will act according to Qur'an and the Prophet's (s) tradition as much as my knowledge, my power, and my effort are" (means I will not go on the approach of previous caliphs). Then, 'Abd al-Rahman stated his conditions for 'Uthman and he immediately accepted. As the result, 'Abd al-Rahman b. Awf pledged allegiance to 'Uthman.
Some references have stated that Imam Ali (a) believed Abd al-Rahman's condition (acting like the previous caliphs) was a deception. He told 'Abd al-Rahman: "You selected 'Uthman so that to regain caliphate. This is not the first time you get united against us (Ahl al-Bayt (a)) and deprive us of our right. This has become a custom against us"
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