Ahl al-Bayt (a)

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The names of Ahl al-Bayt (a) written in thuluth, Islamic calligraphy.
Shi'a Beliefs
Tawhid (Monotheism)Tawhid of EssenceTawhid in AttributesTawhid in ActionsTawhid in Worship
Other BeliefsTawassulShafa'aTabarruk
Divine Justice
Bada'Amr Bayn al-Amrayn
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Ahl al-Bayt (a) (Arabic: أهل البیت) means members of a household or a family. In Islamic terminology, it is applied to some members of the family of the Prophet Muhammad (s). The term Ahl al-Bayt have appeared in hadiths in different context; however, in Shi'a literature, it is used to refer to Imam Ali (a), Lady Fatima (a), Imam al-Hasan (a) and Imam al-Husayn (a) and the nine infallible Imams (a) who were the children of Imam al-Husayn (a). The Qur'an has used this term in the al-Tathir and al-Mawadda verses. The Prophet (s) has stated the high position of Ahl al-Bayt in Islam in Hadith al-Safina and Hadith al-Thaqalayn.

From the Shi'a point of view, Ahl al-Bayt (a) have a pivotal position in religion. They are infallible and superior to all other companions of the Prophet (s) in regards to piety and other virtues. Loving them is obligatory for all Muslims. According to the Shi'a teachings, Ahl al-Bayt (a) have guardianship and leadership upon Muslims and Muslims must regard them as their authorities and refer to them in their religious matters.

Lexical Analysis

In the Arabic lexicon, the word "ahl" (أهل) refers to a relation and connection between a person with another. For example, in Arabic, wife is known as the "ahl" of her husband, the people of every prophet is known as his "ahl", or the residents of a city are the "ahl" of that city. Also, followers of a religion are the "ahl" of that religion.[1] Ahl al-Bayt (a) means the people of the house of the Prophet (s); The famous lexicographer, Ibn Hayyan, has defined Ahl al-Bayt as: "The family of a man: his wife and people closely related to him." This title has a special meaning for Muslims.[2]

The word "آل" (Āl) is derived from"أهل" (ahl) with the letter "ha" (ه) turned into hamza and then into alif.[3] The usage of the word "āl (آل)" is more specific than the usage of "ahl" because "آل" is only used to describe a relation or connection between two people such as: Ibrahim (a) in Al Ibrahim (a), 'Imran in Al 'Imran, and to Fir'awn (Pharaoh) in Al Fir'awn.[4]

In the Qur'an

"Ahl al-Bayt" has been mentioned in the Qur'an in three places:

  1. Verse 73 of Qur'an 11, where it refers to Prophet Abraham (a) and his wife, "They said, 'Are you amazed at Allah's dispensation? [That is] Allah's mercy and His blessings upon you, members of the household. Indeed He is all-laudable, all-glorious.'" (Qur'an 11:73)[5]
  2. Verse 12 of Qur'an 28 which refers to the family of Prophet Moses (a), "We had forbidden him to be suckled by any nurse since before. So she (Moses' sister) said, 'Shall I show you a household that will take care of him for you and will be his well-wishers?'" (Qur'an 28:12)[6]
  3. Verse 33 of Chapter 33 which is known as the al-Tathir verse , where God addresses the Prophet (s) and his family, "Indeed Allah desires to repel all impurity from you, O Ahl al-Bayt, and purify you with a thorough purification." (Qur'an 33:33)[7]

There is a difference of opinion as to what "Ahl al-Bayt" in the mentioned verse refers to. An agreed upon opinion of the Shi'a and many Sunni scholars is that it refers to the Ahl al-Kisa', i.e. the Prophet (s), Ali (a), Fatima (a), al-Hasan (a) and al-Husayn (a).

In Hadiths

From the Prophet (s)

Ahl al-Bayt (a) is mentioned in the hadiths of the Prophet (s) with four different usages:

  1. Its overly general usage includes those with no kinship with the Prophet (s). Those Muslims who have been resolute and sincere in following the Prophet (s). Salman al-Farsi,[8] and Abu Dhar[9] have been mentioned among the Ahl al-Bayt by the Prophet (s). Also, in some other traditions, other people have also been referred to as Ahl al-Bayt, such as Usama b. Zayd[10] and Wathila b. Asqa'.[11]
  2. The general usage which include all relatives of the Prophet (s), to whom giving zakat is prohibited.[12] In another hadith, al-'Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet (s) and his children have been considered to be from among the Ahl al-Bayt.[13]
  3. The special usage of Ahl al-Bayt is about the wives of the Prophet (s). Undoubtedly, the Prophet's (s) wives are the Ahl al-Bayt of the Prophet (a) according to the lexical and common meaning of the Ahl al-Bayt, and here "Bayt" refers to the house, not kinship nor prophethood.
  4. The very special usage of Ahl al-Bayt refers to those in the family of the Prophet (s) who are infallible, whom have been referred to in the al-Tathir, al-Mubahala verses, and the people of Kisa' as Ali (a), Fatima (a), al-Hasan (a), and al-Husayn (a).[14] Some hadiths such as hadith al-Thaqalayn, hadith al-Safina, etc. imply the existence of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) at all times who are the people of Kisa' as well as the infallible Imams (a) among the children of Imam al-Husayn (a).

From Imams (a)

In the hadiths of Imams (a), Ahl al-Bayt has been mentioned in three different usages:

  1. General usage which includes true believers as Imam al-Sadiq (a) says, "Anyone who is pious and righteous is one of us the Ahl al-Bayt (a)."[15] Imam (a) mentions two verses of the Qur'an as the evidence of his statement, "Any of you who allies with them is indeed one of them." (Qur'an 5:51)[16] and "So whoever follows me indeed belongs to me." (Qur'an 14:36)[17]
  2. The special usage of that is about the family of the Prophet (s) as Imam Ali (a) said, "Whenever the war with enemies of Islam became difficult, and people avoided fighting, the Prophet (s) would send his Ahl al-Bayt (a) to battle, so that 'Ubayda b. Harith was martyred in the Battle of Badr, Hamza was martyred in the Battle of Uhud, and Ja'far al-Tayyar was martyred in the Battle of Mu'ta."[18]
  3. The very special usage of Ahl al-Bayt in Imams' (a) hadith refers to those relatives of the Prophet (s) who had a special rank. Whose words and deeds set the standards and guide to the truth. Imam Ali (a) says, "Look at the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s) and adhere to their commands and follow them since they will never deviate you from the path of guidance nor lead you back to ignorance. Do not walk ahead of them lest you may go astray, and do not stay far behind them so that you would perish."[19] Imam al-Hasan al-Mujtaba (a) addressed the people of Iraq and said, "We are the Ahl al-Bayt (a) about whom God revealed the al-Tathir verse."[20] There are many traditions about this.

From the two last meanings, the latter meaning is more common in Shi'a references, and whenever "Ahl al-Bayt" is mentioned without any reference, the very special meaning (the third meaning) is likely intended.


The most distinguished merit of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) is their infallibility which can clearly be understood from the al-Tathir verse, since in this verse, Ahl al-Bayt (a) are referred to as those whom God desired to repel all impurity from.

The word "innama" (إنّما) in this verse [al-Tathir] and the narrations about the context of its revelation shows that this [being free from all impurities] is among the merits of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) and is unique to them.

The Hadith al-Thaqalayn is also among mutawatir [frequently narrated] hadiths in which there is no doubt about its reference. It proves the infallibility of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s) (in its very special usage) because, in this hadith, the Ahl al-Bayt (a) are refered to as al-Thiql al-Asghar [the smaller weight] together with the Qur'an which is al-Thiql al-Akbar (the greater weight) and they have been considered as the two precious legacies of the Prophet (s) that shall never separate from each other; and if Muslims adhere to them, they will never be misguided. Indeed the Qur'an is the word of God and no error is in it, "falsehood cannot approach it, from before it nor from behind it." (Qur'an 41:42)[21] Therefore, the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s) who are positioned alongside the Qur'an, are free from error and adhering to them prevents going astray from the right path.

According to some Sunni scholars, there is no doubt in the moral and practical infallibility of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) who include Lady Fatima (a) and the twelve Imams (a) of Shi'a, and only an ignorant person who rejects Islam would have doubt in its truth. Instead, what is disagreed upon is their infallibility in knowledge;[22] however, because the hadith al-Thaqalayn regards adherence to the Ahl al-Bayt (a) in religion as keeping one safe from ignorance and going astray, their Infallibility in knowledge can easily be understood, per the Shia view.


From the hadith al-Thaqalayn, the superiority of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) over others can easily be understood. The Prophet (s) mentioned them alongside the Qur'an. He referred to the Qur'an as "al-Thiql al-Akbar" and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) as "al-Thiql al-Asghar" and never mentioned any other person alongside the Qur'an. Therefore, the Ahl al-Bayt (a) are superior to others the same way as the Qur'an is superior to other books.

The al-Mubahala verse implies the superiority of Ahl al-Kisa' over other companions of the Prophet (s) as well; since, according to this verse, God has given the Prophet (s) mission to choose some people from among children, Muslim men and women to accompany him in Mubahala with the Christians of Najran. The Prophet (s) chose Imam Ali (a), Lady Fatima (a) and al-Hasan (a) and al-Husayn (a).

There is no doubt that those who were chosen for the Mubahala have great position in faith and closeness to God.[23]

Abu Riyah, the servant of Umm Salama, narrated from the Prophet (s): "If there were other people more honorable than Ali (a), Fatima (s), al-Hasan (a) and al-Husayn (a), God would have ordered me to do Mubadala with their help; and they are the best of people."[24]

Superiority of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) can also be understood from other hadiths and verses such as the al-Mawadda verse (Qur'an 42:23), hadith al-Safina, hadith Bab al-Hitta, hadith al-Nujum, etc.

Most Shi'as believe that infallible imams are superior to previous prophets except the Prophet Muhammad (s). Many hadiths support this belief. The Qur'an considers imamate superior to prophethood,[25] as Ibrahim (a) first was a prophet and then after some trials, God assigned him as Imam.

Authority in Knowledge

In the Hadith al-Thaqalayn

The Hadith al-Thaqalayn implies the superiority of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) in knowledge because the Prophet (s) asked Muslims to adhere to the Qur'an and his Ahl al-Bayt (a) so that they do not go astray.

The first and most essential reference of knowledge and authority of Muslims is the Qur'an, and after that, the tradition of the Prophet (s). The Ahl al-Bayt (a) are the interpreters of the Qur'an, guardians and transmitters of the tradition of the Prophet (s). Without a doubt the Prophet (s) explained a great deal of the Qur'an for the people. However due different circumstances he was unable to explain some issues to the people. He deemed it more appropriate that such issues be explained by his infallible Ahl al-Bayt (a).[26] Thus, the full guardianship of what the Prophet (s) had explained and what he had not was given to the Ahl al-Bayt (a).

The true way of knowing the Qur'an and the tradition of the Prophet (s) is by adhering to the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s); thus, they are the source of knowledge of the Muslims in matters of religious teachings and rulings.

The Sunni scholar, Mulla Ali al-Qari, said, "Ahl al-Bayt (people of the house) are usually more knowledgeable about the owner of the house and his state; therefore, the Ahl al-Bayt (a) are the most knowledgeable ones to the conduct of the Prophet (s), his manner, his rules and wisdom and that is why they deserve to stand beside the Book of God Almighty."[27]

Also, Ibn Hajar said, "The Prophet (s) called the Qur'an and 'Itra [Ahl al-Bayt (a)] as al-thiql [weight]; since, a valuable and important thing is called thiql and the Qur'an and the Ahl al-Bayt (a), because both of them are mines of divine knowledge, great secrets and wisdom and religious rulings; therefore, adherence to them and learning knowledge from them has been encouraged and emphasized. This emphasis about the Ahl al-Bayt (a) is about those who know the Book of God and the conduct of the Prophet (s), and they are those who will never separate from the Qur'an until the Day of Judgment."[28]

In the al-Tathir Verse

In the al-Tathir verse (Qur'an 33:33), the glorious Qur'an introduces the Ahl al-Bayt (a) as those whom God has desired to repel all impurity from and also has mentioned that sublime facts and teachings hidden in the Qur'an cannot be found except by those purified from all impurity. Just the same way that the physical purity is required for touching the text of the Qur'an, purity of the soul from vices is required for understanding the teachings of the Qur'an and the more delicate and deeper the teachings of the Qur'an are, the higher purity of souls are needed to understand them and the greatest of them require infallibility.[29] Therefore, teachings of the Qur'an are not fully and deeply known by anyone other than the Prophet (s) and the infallible ones (a), and thus, to learn them, one needs to refer to them.

Imam al-Sadiq (a) said, "The facts about the past and future and rulings which distinguish the truth and falsehood about the life of human beings are mentioned in the Qur'an and we know them."[30] There are many hadiths narrated from Imams (a) in this regard.

Necessity of Following the Ahl al-Bayt (a)

In the Hadith al-Thaqalayn

The necessity of following the Ahl al-Bayt (a) can be inferred from the hadith al-Thaqalayn, because in this hadith, the salvation of the Muslim world from ignorance is bound to adherence to the Book of God and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s). Adherence to the Qur'an is in fact knowing its instructions and following them. Adherence to the Ahl al-Bayt (a) is the same; i.e. first their orders need to be learned and then they need to be obeyed.[citation needed]

In the Uli l-Amr Verse

In the Uli l-Amr verse, it is made obligatory for anyone to obey God, His messenger, and Uli l-Amr, "O you who have faith! Obey Allah and obey the Apostle and Uli l-Amr (those vested with authority) among you." (Qur'an 4:59) Since, Uli l-Amr is added to "the Apostle" without repetition of the verb "ati'u" (أطیعوا, obey), it can be understood that the criteria for the obligation of obeying Uli l-Amr are the same as the criteria for the obligation of obeying the Prophet (s); and obeying the Prophet (s) is because of his God-given leadership and his infallibility and if he (s) was not infallible, obeying him would not become obligatory without any conditions. The same justification is true about Uli l-Amr, and because of their infallibility, their obedience has been mentioned as absolutely obligatory.[citation needed]

Therefore, the Uli l-Amr verse implies the infallibility of those who take the leadership of the Islamic society after the Prophet (s) and also the obligation of their obedience.

In the Hadith al-Safina

The Hadith al-Safina implies the obligation of following the Ahl al-Bayt (a) as well, since, in this hadith, the Prophet (s) has likened his Ahl al-Bayt (a) to the Arc of Noah (a) by which anyone who entered it safe and anyone who refused perished.

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami has said that "the point of likening them [the Ahl al-Bayt (a)] to the Arc of Noah (a) is that anyone who, for the sake of praising the one who has given them such an honor, loves them, respects them and benefits from their guidance and applies it will be saved from darkness and anyone who opposes them will perish in the sea of ingratitude and gorges of disobedience."[31] About the origin of the hadith of Safina, he said, "This hadith has been narrated in different ways, some of which support the others."[32]

Love of the Ahl al-Bayt (a)

There is no doubt about the obligation of the love of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s). In the al-Mawadda verse,

The love of the Prophet's (s) relatives is mentioned as the reward for his mission. Qurba [قربی, relatives) in this verse refers to those whom the al-Tathir verse has been revealed about.[citation needed]

After quoting the narrations about the necessity of the love of the Ahl al-Bayt (a), Ibn Hajar al-Haytami says, "From previous narrations, the necessity of the love of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) and great prohibition of having grudge towards them can be understood. Al-Bayhaqqi, al-Baghawi and others have expressly mentioned the necessity of loving them and in some verses quoted from him, al-Shafi'i also has mentioned it as he has said, 'O Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Messenger of Allah! Your love is an obligation from Allah revealed in the Qur'an.'"[34]

Fakhr al-Din al-Razi has explained the necessity of the love of the Ahl al-Bayt (a), "There is no doubt that the Prophet (s) loved Ali (a), Fatima (a), al-Hasan (a), and al-Husayn (a). Therefore, it is obligatory for all the Muslims to do so because God has said, 'and follow him so that you may be guided' (Qur'an 7:158)[35] and also told the Prophet (s), "say, 'If you love God, follow me so that God loves you'" (Qur'an 3:31)[36] and said, 'In the Apostle of Allah there is certainly for you a good exemplar.'" (Qur'an 33]:21)[37][38]

From all the verses about the reward of the Prophet's (s) mission, we understand that he (s) asked for no material or non-material rewards from Muslims for himself. Instead, he (s) asked people to love the Ahl al-Bayt (a) as the reward for his mission which actually benefited themselves,

Wilaya and Leadership

There are many intellectual and traditional reasons for the wilaya and leadership of the Ahl al-Bayt (a). From the viewpoint of intellect and according to the philosophy of Imamate, infallibility is one of the most important requirements of an Imam (a). Verses from the Qur'an also support this issue (Cf. Uli l-Amr verse and al-Sadiqin verse)

On the other hand, the Ahl al-Bayt (a) are infallible, thus imamate and leadership of the Islamic world after the Prophet (s) is upon them. Moreover, obeying the Ahl al-Bayt (a) is obligatory. The reasons for the obligation of following the Ahl al-Bayt (a) are absolute and include all obligations and prohibitions of Muslims' lives and does not make any difference between ritual, economic, political and cultural issues. For example, in the Uli l-Amr verse, obeying the Uli l-Amr has the very same position and wide usage which obeying the Prophet (s) has. As it was explained, Uli l-Amr are infallible as this quality only belongs to the Ahl al-Bayt (a) of the Prophet (s).

From the discussions about the love of the Ahl al-Bayt (a), it can be understood that such a love has an introductory role and the ultimate goal is that people find the path of truth and by following it, they reach happiness and salvation. Finding and walking the path of truth includes all individual, social, ritual, and political aspects of life.

The important point in this regard is that in many reports of the hadith al-Thaqalayn, both adherence to the Ahl al-Bayt (a) and the wilaya of Imam Ali (a) have been mentioned. In other words, in the occasion of Ghadir Khumm, the Prophet (s) talked both about his Ahl al-Bayt (a) and advised Muslims to follow them and introduced Imam Ali (a) as the wali and leader of the Islamic Umma after himself.[40] Doing so, the Prophet (s) showed that wilaya and leadership of Imam Ali (a) is the first step for actualizing the message of hadith al-Thaqalayn.

Another point is that in some reports of the hadith al-Thaqalayn, the Qur'an and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) have been referred to as "khalifatayn", "Indeed, I have left among you two caliphs: the Book of God and my Ahl al-Bayt (a)."[41] According to this hadith, Ahl al-Bayt (a) are successors of the Prophet (s) and their rule is overall and encompassing.

In another hadith, after mentioning that the Prophet (s) introduced the Qur'an and the Ahl al-Bayt (a) as the two important legacies he left for the Islamic world, it is mentioned that "the earth will never be empty of the Ahl al-Bayt (a), otherwise, it will become furious over its dwellers." Then he (s) said, "O God! You will never leave the earth empty from Your "hujjas" (proof). They are few in number and great in position before You."[42] Therefore, Ahl al-Bayt (a) are the hujjas (proofs) of God on earth, and imamate and leadership belong to them.

Another evidence for the fact that hadith al-Thaqalayn implies the imamate of the Ahl al-Bayt (a) is that Imam Ali (a) has referred to it as proof and evidence in different occasions, one of which was on the Day of Shawra.[43]

Further evidence referring to this point is Imam Ali's (a) debate with Talha, 'Abd al-Rahman b. 'Awf, and Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas as well as his debate at the time of the caliphate of 'Uthman in the mosque of the Prophet (s) in front of a gathering of companions of the Prophet (s).[44]

Ahmad b. Hanbal narrated from Abu Hurayra that the Prophet (s) looked at Ali (a), Fatima (a), al-Hasan (a) and al-Husayn (a) and said, "I am at war with anyone who is at war with you and at peace with anyone who is at peace with you."[45] From this narration, it can be inferred that obeying them is obligatory.

See also


  1. Ibn Fāris, Muʿjam maqāyīs al-lugha, vol. 1, p. 93; Fayyūmī, al-Miṣbāḥ al-munīr, vol. 1, p. 37; Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, vol. 1, p. 186.
  2. Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, al-Mufradāt, p. 29.
  3. Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, vol. 1, p. 186.
  4. Rāghib al-Iṣfahānī, al-Mufradāt, p. 30.
  5. قالُوا أَ تَعْجَبینَ مِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ رَحْمَتُ اللَّهِ وَ بَرَكاتُهُ عَلَیكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَیتِ إِنَّهُ حَمیدٌ مَجیدٌ
  6. فَقالَتْ هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلی‏ أَهْلِ بَیتٍ یكْفُلُونَهُ لَكُمْ وَ هُمْ لَهُ ناصِحُونَ
  7. إِنَّما یریدُ اللَّهُ لِیذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَیتِ وَ یطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهیراً
  8. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib, vol. 1, p. 85; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Ṣawāʾiq al-muḥraqa, p. 281.
  9. Ṭabrisī, Makārim al-akhlāq, p. 459.
  10. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Ṣawāʾiq al-muḥraqa, p. 281.
  11. Ṭabarī, al-Kabīr, vol. 22, p. 12.
  12. Muslim, Saḥīḥ Muslim, vol. 4, p. 1873.
  13. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Ṣawāʾiq al-muḥraqa, p. 281.
  14. Ṭaḥāwī, Mushkil al-āthār, vol. 1, p. 332-339.; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Ṣawāʾiq al-muḥraqa, p. 281.
  15. Qāḍī Nuʿmān al-Maghribī, Daʿāʾim al-Islām, vol. 1, p. 62.
  16. وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِنكُم فَإِنَّهُ مِنهُم
  17. فَمَن تَبِعَني فَإِنَّهُ مِنّي
  18. Nahj al-balagha, letter 9.
  19. Nahj al-balagha, sermon 97.
  20. Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr al-Qurʾān, vol. 5, p. 458.
  21. لا يَأتيهِ الباطِلُ مِن بَينِ يَدَيهِ وَلا مِن خَلفِهِ
  22. Ḥāfiẓ Muḥammad, al-Nibrās, p. 532.
  23. Ḥillī, Nahj al-ḥaqq, p. 179, 215-216; Fāḍil Miqdād, al-Lawāmiʿ al-ilāhīyya, p. 515; Muzaffar, Dalāʾil al-ṣidq, vol. 2, p. 132-133.
  24. Qundūzī, Yanābīʿ al-mawadda, p. 287.
  25. Qur'an 2:124
  26. Kāshif al-Ghitāʾ, Aṣl al-Shīʿa, p. 162.
  27. Mullā ʿAlī Qārī, al-Mirqāt fī sharḥ al-mishkāt, vol. 5, p. 600.
  28. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Ṣawāʾiq al-muḥraqa, p. 189.
  29. Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 137.
  30. Kulaynī, al-Kāfī, vol. 1, Chapter "al-Radd ilā l-kitāb wa l-sunna," Hadīth 9.
  31. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Ṣawāʾiq al-muḥraqa, p. 191.
  32. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Ṣawāʾiq al-muḥraqa, p. 191.
  33. قُل لا أَسأَلُكُم عَلَيهِ أَجرًا إِلَّا المَوَدَّةَ فِي القُربىٰ
  34. Ibn Ḥajar, al-Ṣawāʾiq al-muḥraqa, p. 217.
  35. وَاتَّبِعوهُ لَعَلَّكُم تَهتَدونَ
  36. قُل إِن كُنتُم تُحِبّونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِعوني يُحبِبكُمُ اللَّهُ
  37. لَقَد كانَ لَكُم في رَسولِ اللَّهِ أُسوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ
  38. Fakhr al-Rāzī, al-Tafsīr al-kabīr, vol. 27, p. 166.
  39. قُل ما سَأَلتُكُم مِن أَجرٍ فَهُوَ لَكُم إِن أَجرِيَ إِلّا عَلَى اللَّهِ وَهُوَ عَلىٰ كُلِّ شَيءٍ شَهيدٌ
  40. Qundūzī, Yanābīʿ al-mawadda, p. 36-40.
  41. Ibn Ḥanbal, al-Musnad, vol. 5, p. 181; Haythamī, Majmaʿ al-zawāʾid, vol. 9, p. 163; Manāwī, Fayḍ al-ghadīr, vol. 3, p. 14.
  42. Qundūzī, Yanābīʿ al-mawadda, p. 27.
  43. Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib, vol. 1, p. 112.
  44. Qundūzī, Yanābīʿ al-mawadda, p. 137.
  45. Ibn Ḥanbal, Faḍāʾil al-ṣaḥāba, vol. 2, p. 767.


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