|Juz'||21 and 22|
Sūra al-Aḥzāb (Arabic: سورة الأحزاب) is thirty third sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura, located in juz's twenty first and twenty second. Since a significant part of this sura is about the battle of Ahzab (also called Khandaq), this sura is named al-Ahzab. Sura al-Ahzab is about not following disbelievers and obeying God, some laws of the Age of Ignorance, duties of the wives of the Prophet (s), the story of the Prophet's (s) marriage with Zaynab bt. Jahsh and the issue of hijab.
Sura al-Ahzab has many famous verses, including a verse which calls the Prophet's (s) wives, "Ummahat al-Mu'minin", introduces the Prophet (s) as an exemplar, and the al-Tathir verse, the al-Khatamiyya verse, the Salawat verse and the al-Amana Verse. About the merits of the recitation of this sura, it is transmitted that if a person recites it, he will be safe from the punishment of the grave, and that he will be with the Prophet (s) and his wives on the Day of Judgment.
This sura is named al-Ahzab, because a significant part of it is about the battle of Ahzab (also called the battle of Khandaq). The word "al-ahzab" meaning "confederates" is mentioned twice in this sura..
- Order and Place of Revelation
- Number of Verses and Other Features
Sura al-Ahzab speaks about miscellaneous issues such as ideological issues, religious rulings, stories, historical examples and especially the battle of Ahzab or Khandaq. Some of the important issues mentioned in this sura, according to Tafsir-i Nimuna, are as follows:
- Obeying God and not following disbelievers
- The battle of Ahzab and the miraculous victory of Muslims over disbelievers
- Duties of the Prophet's (s) wives
- The story of the Prophet's (s) marriage with Zaynab bt. Jahsh
Verse of Ummahat al-Mu'minin
|“||"The Prophet is closer to the faithful than their own souls, and his wives are their mothers."||”|
|— Qur'an, 33:6|
Verse six of sura al-Ahzab introduces the wives of the Prophet (s) as the mothers of believers. It is said that, by mentioning this issue, this verse intended to mention the necessity of respecting the wives of the Prophet (s) and prohibition of marriage with them.
Verse of Uswa
|“||"There is certainly a good exemplar for you in the Apostle of Allah"||”|
|— Qur'an, 33:21.|
According to al-Mizan, this verse has mentioned one of the rulings of the Prophet's (s) mission. Based on this rule, Muslims should follow the Prophet (s) in speech and in action, and take example of him for struggling in the way of God.
Verse of Tathir
|“||"Indeed Allah desires to repel all impurity from you, O People of the Household, and purify you with a thorough purification."||”|
|— Qur'an, 33:33.|
This part of verse 33 is known as the verse of al-Tathir. In Shi'a and Sunni sources, it is mentioned that it was revealed about the Companions of Kisa'. In this verse, it is mentioned that God desires to repel all impurity from the Ahl al-Bayt (a). To prove the infallibility of Imams (a), Shi'a scholars brought argument from this verse.
Verse of Khatamiyya
|“||"Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Apostle of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets."||”|
|— Qur'an, 33:40.|
This verse calls the Prophet of Islam (s) "Khatam al-Nabiyyin" (Seal of Prophets). They say that, the word "khatam" means "something by which they end something." Muslim scholars believe that according to this verse, the Prophet of Islam (s) is the last messenger of God and no other prophet would come after him.
Verse of Salawat
|“||"Indeed Allah and His angels bless the Prophet; O you who have faith! Invoke blessings on him and invoke Peace upon him in a worthy manner."||”|
|— Qur'an, 33:56.|
Reciting this verse is advised as one of the recommended practices after Maghrib prayer. In Shi'a mosques of Iran, after each prayer, a person recites this verse loudly and people repeat Salawat after him three times in a loud voice. In hadiths from Shi'a and Sunni sources, it is mentioned that upon sending Salawat to the Prophet (s), Salawat should be sent to his households too.
Verse of Hijab
|“||"O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the faithful to draw closely over themselves their chadors [when going out]. That makes it likely for them to be recognized and not be troubled, and Allah is all-forgiving, all-merciful."||”|
|— Qur'an, 33:59.|
This verse and some other verses are known as the verses of hijab. According to exegetes, this verse orders Muslim women to observe perfect hijab and explains that this action is better for them, because doing so, they will be less harassed by men.
Verse of Amana
|“||"Indeed We presented the Trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to undertake it and were apprehensive of it; but man undertook it. Indeed he is most unjust and ignorant."||”|
|— Qur'an, 33:72.|
About the word of "amana" in this verse, exegetes have discussed a lot and have expressed different views in this regard. In the exegetical books, examples such as divine wilaya, intellect, free will, knowledge of God and religious duties are mentioned for the meaning of "amana".
Stories and Historical Accounts
- Battle of Ahzab: Coming of enemies, unseen assistance of God, doubt of some Muslims, God's warning about escaping, disbelievers' return and the end of the battle, trial of the People of the Book who were allied with disbelievers (verses 9 – 23)
- The Prophet's (s) marriage with Zayd b. Haritha's divorced wife (verse 37)
Merits and Benefits
Based on a hadith in Majma' al-bayan, if a person recites Sura al-Ahzab and teaches it to his family, he will be safe from the punishment of the grave. It is transmitted from Imam al-Sadiq (a) that those who recite this sura a lot, will be with the Prophet (s) and his wives on the Day of Judgment.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 17, p. 183.
- Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qur’ān, vol. 2, p. 1246.
- They suppose the confederates (Ahzab) have not left yet, and were the confederates to come [again], they would wish they were in the desert with the Bedouins asking about your news.(verses 20), But when the faithful saw the confederates, they said, ‘This is what Allah and His Apostle had promised us (verse 21)
- Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qur’an, vol. 2, p. 166.
- Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāma-yi Qur’ān, vol. 2, p. 1246.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 16, p. 273.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 17, p. 184-185.
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 16, p. 277.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 16, p. 288.
- See: Tirmizī, Sunan, vol. 5, p. 699; Ṣadūq, Maʿānī l-akhbār, vol. 2, p. 403.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 16, p. 311; Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 8, p. 560.
- Motahhari, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, vol. 3, p. 155.
- See: Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 16, p. 325; Motahhari, Majmūʿa-yi āthār, vol. 3, p. 155.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 17, p. 418.
- Qur’ān, 33:53; 24:31.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 17, p. 427-428.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 17, p. 451-452.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 8, p. 524.
- Ṣadūq, Thawāb al-aʿmāl, p. 110.
- Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1374 Sh.
- Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. [n.p]: Markaz Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
- Motahhari, Morteza. Majmūʿa-yi āthār. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Ṣadrā, 1375 Sh.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Maʿānī l-akhbār. Edited by ʿAlī Akbar Ghaffārī. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1403 AH.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. Thawāb al-aʿmāl wa ʿiqāb al-aʿmāl. Qom: Dār al-Sharīf al-Raḍī, 1406 AH.
- Tirmizī, Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā. Sunan. Edited by ʿAbd al-Wahhāb ʿAbd al-Laṭīf. Second edition. Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1403 AH.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1417 AH.
- Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Edited by Hāshim Rasūlī & Yazdī Ṭabāṭabāyī. Third edition. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Nāṣir Khusru, 1372 Sh.