Sūra al-Jumu'a (Arabic: سورة الجمعة) is the sixty second sura of the Qur'an. It is a Madani sura located in the twenty eighth juz' thereof. It is called "al-Jumu'a" (Friday) because it states the ruling of the Friday Prayer. The sura is concerned with the importance of the Friday Prayer, commanding Muslims to avoid sales and purchases during the Friday Prayer.
Well-known verses of the sura include its fifth verse concerning those who carry (or are entrusted with) the Torah, and the ninth verse concerning the ruling of the Friday Prayer. About the virtues of those who recite the sura, it is said that people who recite the sura on eves of Fridays will be forgiven the sins they committed between the two Fridays.
The sura is called "al-Jumu'a" or "al-Jum'a" (Friday), because it states the ruling of the Friday Prayer and practices thereafter.
- Place and Order of Revelation
Sura al-Jumu'a is a Madani sura of the Qur'an. In the order of revelation, it is the 109th sura revealed to the Prophet (s). In the present order of compilation, it is the sixty second sura located in the twenty eighth juz' of the Qur'an.
- Number of Verses and Other Features
Sura al-Jumu'a has eleven verses, 177 words, and 768 letters. With regard to size, it is one of the Mufassilat suras (that is, suras with short and numerous verses) and one of the Musabbihat suras, that is, those opening with the exaltation (or tasbih) of God. The sura is also considered as one of the mumtahinat suras, because its content bears similarities to that of Sura al-Mumtahina.
According to 'Allama Tabataba'i, Sura al-Jumu'a encourages Muslims to care for the Friday Prayer and provide preparations for holding it, because it is one of the greatest rituals of God the celebration of which improves people's conditions both in this world and the afterlife. Sura al-Jumu'a opens with the exaltation of God, stating that God has sent among Ummis (that is, the unlettered) a Messenger from themselves to purify them with good morals and teach them the Book (i.e. the Qur'an) and the wisdom.
In his exegesis of Sura al-Jumu'a, Mulla Sadra suggests that it encompasses the tenets of faith and mystical principles and truths, talking about knowledge of God, the reality of the origin (God) and the destination (resurrection), the quality of resurrection, sending the prophets, teaching, sending down the Book, and guiding the intellects.
Important themes of the last few verses of the sura include the quitting of the Friday Prayer, hasting to the remembrance of God, and blaming those who engaged in selling and buying when the Prophet (s) was delivering the sermon of the Friday Prayer.
The Occasion of the Revelation of the Last Verse
Jabir b. 'Abd Allah al-Ansari is quoted as saying that he was saying the Friday Prayer with the Prophet (s) when a commercial caravan arrived in Medina, and people (who attended the Friday Prayer) were scattered towards the caravan. Only twelve people stayed with the Prophet, including Jabir. It was then that the verse, "But when they saw a transaction or a diversion, [O Muhammad], they rushed to it and left you standing," was revealed.
On another account, people of Medina were in starvation and foods were highly expensive when Duhya b. Khalifa's commercial caravan arrived in Medina. Performers of the Prayer rushed to him and a few people stayed. Then the above verse was revealed and the Prophet (s) said, "if all Muslims went there, they would suffer from the fire." Those who stayed with the Prophet (s) are said to include 'Ali b. Abi Talib (a), al-Hasan (a), al-Husayn (a), Fatima (a), Salman, Abu Dharr, Miqdad, and Suhayb b. Sinan.
مَثَلُ الَّذِينَ حُمِّلُوا التَّوْرَاةَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَحْمِلُوهَا كَمَثَلِ الْحِمَارِ يَحْمِلُ أَسْفَارًا ۚ بِئْسَ مَثَلُ الْقَوْمِ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا بِآيَاتِ اللَّـهِ ۚ وَاللَّـهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
The example of those who were charged with the Torah, then failed to carry it, is that of an ass carrying books. Evil is the example of the people who deny Allah’s signs, and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing lot.
|— Qur'an 62:5|
The verse is a Quranic proverb concerning the Jews of the Prophet's time who refused to convert to Islam notwithstanding explicit notes in their scripture regarding the prophethood of the Prophet of Islam (s). The verse describes them as non-practical scholars (those who do not act upon what they know). According to some hadiths, they claimed that they were not addressed by Muhammad's religion. Thus, the Qur'an reminded them that they would not say so had they carefully read their scripture and acted upon it, because their scripture contains the good tidings of the emergence of the Prophet of Islam (s).
The Friday Prayer Verse (9)
- Main article: The Verse of the Friday Prayer
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّـهِ وَذَرُوا الْبَيْعَ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
O you who have faith! When the call is made for prayer on Friday, hurry toward the remembrance of Allah, and leave all business. That is better for you, should you know.
|— Qur'an 62:9|
A number of Shiite and Sunni jurists have appealed to this verse as well as numerous hadiths in order to substantiate the obligation of the Friday Prayer. However, some of them reject the idea that the verse implies its obligation. To hold the Friday Prayer during the Occultation of the Infallible Imam (a) is a matter of controversy among Shiite jurists; some of them take it to be forbidden, others take it to be an individual obligation (al-wajib al-ta'yini) and others take it to be an Disjunctive obligation (al-wajib al-takhyiri). According to jurists who do not consider the Friday Prayer to be an individual obligation during the Occultation of Imam al-Mahdi (a), it is not forbidden for Muslims to engage in sales, purchases, or other transactions after the adhan of the Friday noon or during the Friday Prayer.
Merits and Benefits
About the virtues of reciting Sura al-Jumu'a it is said that God rewards the reciter of the sura ten times greater than the number of those who attend the Friday Prayer and those who do not. Or if one recites the sura on eves of Fridays, that would be an expiation of one's sins between the Two Fridays. There is also a hadith according to which it is recommended to recite Sura al-Jumu'a and Qur'an 63 in the Morning, Noon, and Afternoon prayers on Fridays. As to the effects of the sura, it is said to expel satanic temptations and fears.
Sura al-Jumu'a or parts thereof have been inscribed on tiles on religious-historical buildings. For example, there is an inscription of Sura al-Jumu'a with the calligraphy of 'Alirida 'Abbasi in the Shrine of Imam al-Rida (a), and the sura is inscribed in the Shrine of Fatima al-Ma'suma (a) on the portico and dome of Shah 'Abbas II. It is also inscribed on tiles of Jamkaran Mosque, the Mausoleum of Imamzada Ishaq b. Musa, and the Tomb of the Four Prophets.
|For the full text, see text:Sura al-Jumu'a.|
In addition to exegeses of Sura al-Jumu'a in comprehensive exegetical books, there are independent books devoted to the exegesis of Sura al-Jumu'a as well, including:
- Mulla Sadra Shirazi, Muhammad b. Ibrahim, Tafsir Sura al-Jumu'a
- Kia', Ali, Tafsir Sura al-Jumu'a
- Mahdawi Damghani, Ali, Nasim Jum'a: Tafsir Sura al-Jumu'a
- Alam al-Huda, Sayyid Ahmad, Jilwahaye hidayati sura jum'ua
- Khurramshāhī, "Sura-yi Jumu'a," p. 1255-1256.
- Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 168.
- Khurramshāhī, "Sura-yi Jumu'a," p. 1256.
- Rāmyār, Tārīkh-i Qur'ān, p. 596 and 360.
- Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 1, p. 2612.
- Al-Mumtahinat are sixteen suras of the Qur'an allegedly thus called by al-Suyuti. These suras consist in: Sura al-Fath, Sura al-Hashr, Sura al-Sajda, Sura al-Talaq, Sura al-Qalam, Sura al-Hujurat, Sura al-Mulk, Sura al-Taghabun, Sura al-Munafiqun, Sura al-Jumu'a, Sura al-Saff, Sura al-Jinn, Sura Nuh, Sura al-Mujadala, Sura al-Mumtahana, Sura al-Tahrim
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 263.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 263.
- Mullā Ṣadrā, Tafsīr-i sura al-Jumu'a, p. 15.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, al-Mīzān, vol. 19, p. 263.
- Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
- Wāḥidī, Asbāb al-nuzūl al-Qur'ān, p. 448.
- Wāḥidī, Asbāb al-nuzūl al-Qur'ān, p. 449.
- Baḥrānī, Al-Burhā, vol. 5, p. 381.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Mithālha-yi zībāyi Qur'ān, vol. 2, p. 267.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 24, p. 114.
- Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, Musnad, vol. 3, p. 424-425; Nasā'ī, Sunan-i Nasā'ī, vol. 3, p. 85-89; Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa, vol. 7, p. 295-302; Nūrī, Mustadrak al-wasāʾil, vol. 6, p. 10.
- Shukānī, Nayl al-awṭār, vol. 3, p. 254-255; Ṭūsī, al-Khilāf, vol.1, p. 593; Muḥaqqiq al-Ḥillī, al-Mu'tabar fī sharḥ-i al-mūkhtaṣar, vol. 2, p. 274.
- Muntaẓarī, al-Badr al-zāhir fī ṣalāt al-jumu'a wa al-musāfir, p. 6; Gharawī Tabrīzī, al-Tanqīḥ fī sharḥ ʿurwat al-wuthqā, vol. 1, p. 16-17.
- Riḍānijād, Ṣalāt al-jumu'a, p. 28.
- Imām Khomeinī, Tawḍīh al-masāʾil, vol. 1, p. 857.
- Ardibīlī, Zubdat al-bayān fī aḥkām al-Qurʾān, p. 115.
- Ṭabrisī, Majmaʿ al-bayān, vol. 10, p. 427.
- Majlisī, Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 86, p. 362.
- Ṣadūq, ʿIlal al-sharāʾi, vol. 2, p. 356.
- Baḥrānī, Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān, vol. 5, p. 371.
- Great Islamic Encyclopedia, vol. 1, Astan Quds Razavi entry, p. 342.
- Great Islamic Encyclopedia, vol. 1, Hadrat-i Ma'suma entry, p. 361.
- Encyclopedia of Islamic World, Jamkaran mosque entry (Persian)
- Fayḍ Qummī, Ganjīna-yi athār-i Qom, p. 138.
- Encyclopedia of Islamic World, Peyghambariyya entry (Persian)
- Qurʾān-i Karīm. Translated to Farsi by Muḥammad Mahdī Fūlādwand. Tehran: Dār al-Qurʾān al-Karīm, 1376 Sh-1418 AH.
- Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal. Musnad-i Aḥmad. Istanbul: 1402 AH-1982.
- Baḥrānī, Sayyid Hāshim. Al-Burhān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. First Edition. Qom: Mu'assisa-yi Bi'that, 1415 AH.
- Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmī. Tehran: Markiz-i Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Buzurg-i Islāmāī, 1374 Sh.
- Dāʾirat al-Maʿārif-i Qurʾān-i Karīm. Compiled by Pazhūhishgāh-i Ulūm wa Farhang-i Islāmī. Qom: Mu'assisa-yi Būstān-i Kitāb, 1382 Sh.
- Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, [n.d].
- Fayḍ Qummī, ʿAbbās. Ganjīna āthār-i Qom. 1349 Sh. [n.p].
- Ḥurr al-ʿĀmilī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan al-. Wasāʾil al-Shīʿa. Qom: 1409-1412 AH.
- Ḥillī, Jaʿfar b. al-Ḥasan al-. Al-Mu'tabar fī sharḥ al-mūkhtaṣar. Qom: 1364 Sh.
- Imām Khomeinī. Tawḍīh al-masāʾil. 8th edition. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1424 AH.
- Gharawī Tabrīzī, Alī. Al-Tanqīḥ fī sharh-i ʿurwat al-wuthqā; taqrīrāt-i dars-i Aytullāh al-Khoeī. Qom: 1418 AH.
- Khurramshāhī, Qawām al-Dīn. "Sūra-yi Isrā'" In Dānishnāma-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. Tehran: Dūstān-Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
- Majlisī, Muḥammad Bāqir al-. Biḥār al-anwār. Beirut: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Turāth al-ʿArabī, 1403 AH.
- Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. 1st edition. Markaz-i Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh.
- Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Mithālha-yi zībā-yi Qurʾānī. Qom: Nasl-i Jawān, 1382 Sh.
- Nasā'ī, Aḥmad b. Alī. Sunan al-Nasā'ī, bi sharḥ Jalāl al-dīn Suyūṭī wa ḥāshīya Nūr al-dīn b. Abd al-Hādī Sindī. Istanbul: 1401/1981.
- Nūrī, Mīrzā Ḥusayn al-. Mustadrak al-wasāʾil wa musṭanbit al-wasā'il. Qom: Muʾassisat Āl al-Bayt, 1408 AH.
- Rāmyār, Maḥmūd. Tārīkh-i Qur'ān. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Ilmī wa Farhangī, 1362 Sh.
- Riḍānijād, Izz al-Dīn. Ṣalāt al-jumu'a: Dirāsat fiqhīyya wa tārīkhīyya. Qom: 1415 AH.
- Ṣadūq, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-. ʿIlal al-sharāʾiʿ. Qom: Intishārāt-i Dāwarī, 1385 Sh.
- Ṣafawī, Salmān. "Sūra-yi Qaṣaṣ" in Dānishnāmah-yi mu'āṣir-i Qurʾān-i karīm. Qom: Intishārāt-i Salmān-i Azāda, 1396 Sh.
- Shawkānī, Muḥammad. Nayl al-awṭār. Egypt: Shirkat Maktabat wa Maṭbaʿat Muṣṭafā al-Babī al-al-ḥalabī. [n.d].
- Ṭūsī, Muḥammad b. al-Ḥaasn al-. Al-Khilāf. Qom: Daftar-i Intishārāt-i Islāmī, 1407 AH.
- Ṭabāṭabāyī, Muḥammad Ḥusayn. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1390 AH.
- Ṭabrisī, Faḍl b. al-Ḥasan al-. Majmaʿ al-bayān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. Tehran: Nāṣir Khusraw, 1372 Sh.
- Wāḥidī, Alī b. Aḥmad. Asbāb al-nuzūl al-Qurʾān. Beirut: Dār al-Kutub al-Ilmīyya, 1411 AH.