Sura al-Mujadala

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Sura al-Mujadala
al-Hadid
Sura Number58
Juz'28
Revelation
Revelation Number106
Makki/MadaniMadani
Information
Verse Count22
Word Count475
Letter Count2046\


This article is an introduction to the Sura al-Mujadala; to read its text see text:Sura al-Mujadala.

Sūra al-Mujādala (Arabic: سورة المُجادَلة, the Pleading) is the fifty-eighth sura and among Madani suras of the Qur'an which is located in twenty eighth juz'. This sura is called al-Mujadala because, at the beginning of this sura, there is a mention of the story of a woman who complained to the Prophet (s) of her husband who repudiated her by zihar. Sura al-Mujadala speaks about the rulings of zihar, manners of association of hypocrites, and prohibits believers of entering the confederates of devils and hypocrites.

Al-Najwa Verse (secret talk) is among the famous verses of this sura. Presence in the confederates of God and staying away from the punishment of God and poverty are mentioned the merits of reciting this sura. Sura al-Mujadala is the only sura, in all verses of which the name of "Allah" is mentioned.

Introduction

  • Naming

This sura is called Sura al-Mujadala (the Pleading) because at the beginning of it, there is a mention of the story of a woman who pleaded with the Prophet (s) about her husband who repudiated her by zihar (zihar means that a husband wrongly likens his wife to his mother and there are rulings about it in jurisprudence). Thus, this sura is called "al-Zihar" as well. Another name of this sura is "Qad Sami'-a" (Arabic: قَدْ سَمِعَ) because it begins with this phrase.[1]

  • Order and Place of Revelation

Sura al-Mujadala is among Madani suras and it is 105th sura revealed to the Prophet (s). This sura is fifty eighth sura[2] in the current order of compilation of the Qur'an.

  • Number of Verses and Other Attributes

Sura al-Mujadala has twenty two verses, 475 words, and 2046 letters. This sura is among mufassalat (the suras which have several short verses) and is a little less in length than a hizb.[3] Sura al-Mujadala is at the beginning of juz' twenty eight.[4]

A special attribute of Sura al-Mujadala is that it is the only sura, in all verses of which the name of "Allah" is mentioned.

Content

Content of this sura can be divided to three parts:[5]

  1. In the first part, it speaks of the ruling of zihar which was considered a kind of divorce and separation in the Age of Ignorance and Islam corrected it.
  2. In the second part of the sura, it speaks of the manners of association and socializing, including prohibition of secret talk and also ordering about providing place of sitting for those who enter a gathering later.
  3. In the last part of the sura, it speaks about hypocrites who claim about being [[[Muslim]], but they associate with the enemies of Islam. This part prohibits true Muslims of entering the confederates of devils and hypocrites and invites them toward the "love for God" and "hate for God" and joining the "confederates of God".
Content of Sura al-Mujadala[6]
 
 
 
 
Do not oppose to the order of God and His Prophet (s)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First topic: verses 1-7
Avoiding opposition to the order of God in the manner of divorce
 
Second topic: verses 8-13
Avoiding plotting for and abusing the Prophet (s)
 
Third topic: verses 14-22
Avoiding friendship with the enemies of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
First point: verses 1-2
The oppressing nature of zihar
 
First point: verse 8
Measures of hypocrites in opposition to the Prophet (s)
 
First point: verses 14-18
Disclosing the friendship of hypocrites with the enemies of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Second point: verses 3-4
Atonement for zihar
 
Second point: verses 9-13
Duties of believers for opposing hypocrites
 
Second point: verses 14-18
Punishment of friendship with the enemies of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Third point: verses 5-7
Consequences of opposing the order of God
 
 
 
 
 
Third point: verses 19-21
Attributes of the friends of the enemies of God
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth point: verse 22
That no believer befriends the enemies of God

Historical Reports

  • A woman's complaint of zihar to the Prophet (s) in first verse.[7]
  • Ordering to give charity for talking secretly to the Prophet (s) and its abrogation in verses twelve and thirteen.

Famous Verses

Al-Najwa Verse

Some famous exegetes including al-Shaykh al-Tabrisi in Majma' al-bayan wrote about the occasion of revelation of this verse and its following verses that a group of wealthy people went to the Prophet (s) and talked secretly to him [and took his time and made the poor worried]. Thus, God ordered that everyone needed to give charity to the poor before talking to the Prophet (s). Wealthy people stopped doing so, when they heard about it; so, the next verse was revealed [and criticized them and abrogated the previous rule] and gave permission for talking to the Prophet (s) to all people. Meanwhile, the only person who gave charity for talking to the Prophet (s) was Imam Ali (a).[8]

Verses of Ruling

Merits and Benefits

In a hadith from the Prophet (s), it is mentioned that, "anyone who recites Sura al-Mujadala, will be in confederates of God."[9] In another hadith of Imam al-Sadiq (a), "anyone who recites Sura al-Mujadala and Sura al-Hadid in his daily prayers frequently, God will not punish him in all his life and his family will not receive any harm either and will not be afflicted with poverty and misery."[10]

External Links

Notes

  1. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāmah-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī, vol. 2, p. 1254.
  2. Maʿrifat, Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān, vol. 2, p. 168.
  3. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāmah-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī, vol. 2, p. 1254.
  4. Khurramshāhī, Dānishnāmah-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī, vol. 2, p. 1254.
  5. ʿAlī Bābāyī, Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 5, p. 115.
  6. Khamagar, Muhammad, Sakhtar-i suraha-yi Qur'an-i karim, Mu'assisa-yi Farhangi-yi Qur'an wa 'Itrat-i Nur al-Thaqalayn, Qom: Nashra, ed.1, 1392 Sh.
  7. Allah has certainly heard the speech of her who pleads with you about her husband and complains to Allah. Allah hears the conversation between the two of you. Indeed Allah is all-hearing, all-seeing.
  8. Makārim Shīrāzī,Tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 23, p. 447-449.
  9. ʿAlī Bābāyī, Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 5, p. 116.
  10. ʿAlī Bābāyī, Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna, vol. 5, p. 116.

References

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  • Ardibīlī, Aḥmad b. Muḥammad. Zubdat al-bayān fī aḥkām al-Qurʾān. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Tehran: al-Maktaba al-Murtaḍawiyya, [n.d].
  • Fāḍil Miqdād, Miqdād b. ʿAbd Allāh al-. Kanz al-ʿirfān fī fiqh al-Qurʾān. 1st edition. Edited by Muḥammad Bāqir Sharīfzāda & Muḥammad Bāqir Bihbūdī. Tehran: Nashr-i Murtaḍawī, [n.d].
  • Farhangnāma-yi ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. Qom: Daftar-i Tablīghāt-i Islāmī, [n.d].
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  • Khurramshāhī, Bahāʾ al-Dīn. Dānishnāmah-yi Qurʾān wa Qurʾān pazhūhī. volume 2. Tehran: Dūstān wa Nāhīd, 1377 Sh.
  • Maʿrifat, Muḥammad Hādī. Āmūzish-i ʿulūm-i Qurʾān. 1st edition. Markaz-i Chāp wa Nashr-i Sāzmān-i Tablīghāt, 1371 Sh. [n.p]
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Tafsīr-i nimūna. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyya, 1382 Sh.
  • Makārim Shīrāzī, Nāṣir. Barguzīda-yi tafsīr-i nimūna. Edited by Aḥmad ʿAlī Bābāyī. Tehran: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmiyya, 1382 Sh.
  • Rāmyār, Maḥmūd. Tārīkh-i Qur'ān. Tehran: Intishārāt-i Ilmī wa Farhangī, 1362 Sh.
  • Ṭabāṭabāʾī, Mūhammad Ḥusayn al-. Al-Mīzān fī tafsīr al-Qurʾān. 2nd edition. Beirut: Muʾassisat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, 1974.